The evidence for Non-surgical treatments for Ankle Osteoarthritis
Ross Hauser, MD | Caring Medical Regenerative Medicine Clinics, Fort Myers, Florida
Danielle R. Steilen-Matias, MMS, PA-C | Caring Medical Regenerative Medicine Clinics, Oak Park, Illinois
Katherine L. Worsnick, MPAS, PA-C | Caring Medical Regenerative Medicine Clinics, Fort Myers, Florida
David Woznica, MD | Caring Medical Regenerative Medicine Clinics, Oak Park, Illinois
The evidence for Non-surgical treatments for Ankle Osteoarthritis
In this article, we will make the connection from ankle ligament instability to ankle osteoarthritis, to the need for ankle fusion or ankle replacement surgery. We will also present Prolotherapy as an alternative to this predicament.
In our office’s 26+ years of service, we have seen countless people with ankle osteoarthritis. Many are very active people, heavily into sports. Many have a physically challenging job, many come to us after suffering an injury or accident that was very damaging.
What almost all these people have in common is that:
- there is some type of cartilage loss,
- there is some type of reduced range of motion,
- after a day on their feet or extended walking, they can barely stand,
- their diet now consists of large helpings of Advil and Motrin.
- But they are still trying to carry on.
Understanding what is happening in your ankle. The progression of ankle instability caused by chronic ankle sprains to disabling full-blown osteoarthritis and the need for ankle surgery or fusion.
- In December 2016, Journal of British Sports Medicine published the Executive Committee of the International Ankle Consortium position paper on the progression of ankle instability caused by chronic ankle sprains to disabling full-blown osteoarthritis and the need for ankle surgery or fusion.
- In 2010, we published our Caring Medical research position paper on the progression of ankle instability caused by chronic ankle sprains to disabling full-blown osteoarthritis and the need for ankle surgery or fusion.
Why is this research important to you? Because it may help you prevent a surgery
Some patients with ankle instability problems come in following an exercise program that made their problems worse. Some went on to physical therapy and while you can strengthen the muscles around the joint with physical therapy, just like exercise, itself can cause ligament damage. Once the ligaments get stretched out from injury, they usually do not heal on their own and regain their strength. So we see these people with compromised ankles that keep turning in, at high risk for chronic sprain and permanent damage.
In December 2016, the Journal of British Sports Medicine (1) published the Executive Committee of the International Ankle Consortium position paper on the progression of ankle instability caused by chronic ankle sprains to disabling full-blown osteoarthritis and the need for ankle surgery or fusion.
That position paper which was compiled by researchers from the University of Kentucky, University College Dublin, UK National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine, the University of Delaware, University of North Carolina, among many other medical universities stated:
- “this 2016 position paper with recommendations for information implementation and continued research based on the paradigm that lateral ankle sprain and the development of chronic ankle instability, serve as a conduit to a significant global healthcare burden.
- We intend our recommendations to serve as a mechanism to promote efforts to improve prevention and early management of lateral ankle sprain.
- We believe this will reduce the prevalence of chronic ankle instability and associated sequelae that have led to the broader public health burdens of decreased physical activity and early onset ankle joint post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Ultimately, this can contribute to healthier lifestyles and promotion of physical activity.”
People are at high risk of developing ankle osteoarthritis. It is a big problem. Recently, doctors from Rutgers University in New Jersey published their findings in the Journal of Orthopaedic Research that listed the top five common athletic injuries as high-risk factors for developing osteoarthritis, among the top 5? HIGH RISK > Chronic Ankle instability to ankle osteoarthritis.(2)
In summary, ankle sprains cause ankle osteoarthritis by creating an environment of joint instability caused by weakened ligaments. Treat the unstable ligaments – prevent a worsening of factors that lead to advancing ankle osteoarthritis.
In 2010, our Caring Medical research team published this abstract in the medical journal Practical Pain Management:
- The recurrence rate for lateral ankle sprains has been reported to be as high as 80%.
- Up to 40% of individuals have residual ankle symptoms due to chronic instability
- One study suggested 70% to 80% of patients with chronic ankle instability end up with arthritic ankles.
- Long-term residual symptoms from ankle sprains that do not heal can result in ongoing problems including pain, stiffness, limited range of motion and the inability to exercise or walk long distances and osteoarthritis.(3)
Untreated damage to ankle ligaments = ankle osteoarthritis
The ankle consists of an intricate structure of bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. This complexity provides stability but also exposes the ankle to damage and instability through chronic ankle sprains. That these injuries commonly lead to osteoarthritis so we should not be surprised by research that confirms this.
Damage to ankle ligaments, including the talofibular ligament, can bring about ligament laxity. This allows the ankle bones to rub together abnormally, having a degenerative effect on the joint often demonstrated by ankle popping and dislocations.
As a person continues to walk and bear weight on the unstable ankle joint, the bones abnormally wear and tear on the cartilage. In this situation, the body will attempt to stabilize the joint. Because ligaments have less of a blood supply compared to other tissues, such as muscle, they are less likely to heal on their own. The joint will typically inflame, in an attempt to bring healing cells to the joint. An overgrowth of bone is also likely to occur in an attempt to stabilize the joint.
Diagnosis and treatment of ankle arthritis
Traditional diagnosis will often include the collection of one’s medical history; a physical examination; discussion of the frequency, intensity and duration of the pain; identification of the location of the pain and a history treatment since the onset of the pain. Sometimes a physician may analyze how the patient walks, known as gait analysis, to determine how the bones in the leg and foot align while walking. X-rays will usually show the spacing between bones and the level of cartilage degeneration. To see the joint in motion and perform stress maneuvers to determine the level of joint stability, musculoskeletal ultrasound is utilized. In addition, the providers should perform a physical examination to check the range of motion and ligament laxity/joint instability.
Conventional treatment usually starts with pain relievers and anti-inflammatories to reduce pain and swelling. Arch supports in the shoes may be recommended to compensate for the change in one’s gait and to cushion the act of walking.
Custom-made shoes with stiff soles and rocker bottoms are not uncommon. Steroid injections such as cortisone are often prescribed in order to bring temporary pain relief. Most patients with ankle arthritis have been instructed by their physician to discontinue sports and activities which worsen the pain.
Arthroscopic surgery is quite a popular traditional medicine recommendation to “clean” the joint area of ragged and inflamed tissue, bone spurs that have developed as cartilage has degenerated and possible bone and tissue fragments from injury.
Research: the ankle osteoarthritis anti-inflammatory path of treatment is NOT good.
Doctors from The University of Melbourne and the University of Southampton published a study in March 2019 in the journal Drugs and Aging (4). The title of the paper is “Clinical Assessment and Management of Foot and Ankle Osteoarthritis: A Review of Current Evidence and Focus on Pharmacological Treatment.”
Let’s see if the path the doctors describe in their study sounds like the path you took to get to significant ankle osteoarthritis. Let’s listen to the research:
- “Despite the high prevalence and disabling nature of foot and ankle osteoarthritis, the condition has been neglected by clinical researchers, and there are very few trials investigating non-surgical foot or ankle osteoarthritis treatment options.”
- “There are no accepted clinical diagnostic criteria for foot or ankle osteoarthritis so imaging remains common.”
This is a March 2019 study from leading physicians. They are telling you that non-surgical options are neglected when it comes to treating ankle osteoarthritis and that since there is no diagnostic criteria ankle osteoarthritis, you will get an MRI or a scan to help decide the treatment options. We have seen so many patients over the years who were sent to surgery for an MRI abnormality and not treated for what was really happening in their ankle.
Let’s get back to the study:
- “Clinical guidelines based on knee and hip osteoarthritis research recommend education, exercise, and weight loss in the first instance.
- Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or capsaicin may be used as an adjunct. Failing these approaches, acetaminophen (paracetamol) should be recommended; however, if there is inadequate symptomatic relief, then clinicians should try an oral NSAID or a cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor.
- Given that adverse events and co-morbidities are common in the elderly, older patients should be closely monitored.
- Some studies have investigated intra-articular injections for foot and ankle osteoarthritis, and there is some evidence to suggest hyaluronic acid may be effective in the short term for ankle osteoarthritis. With the lack of research on foot or ankle osteoarthritis treatments, however, robust clinical trials are urgently needed.”
Ankle Fusion and Ankle Replacement
For a much more detailed discussion ankle surgery please see our article on Ankle Fusion and Ankle Replacement.
Arthrodesis is a surgical pain relieving procedure that fuses the bones of the joint making it one continuous bone. The surgeon uses pins or screws and rods to hold the bones in the proper position while the joints fuse. This also dramatically reduces mobility and range of motion.
Doctors at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University in Korea writing in the journal Foot and Ankle International found:
“Ankle fusion combined with calcaneal sliding osteotomy (surgeons break your heel bone to restructure the joint complex) can be an effective operative option for ball and socket ankle deformity with advanced arthritis. In spite of increased complication rate, reliable pain relief, and restoration of gait ability through correcting hindfoot malalignment could improve the quality of life.”(5)
In other words, you need to gamble reliable pain relief against increased complication rate and the chance for greater pain and immobility.
As far as ankle replacement goes, this is addressed in a November 2016 paper from Canadian University researchers who also published in the journal Foot and Ankle International.
“Repeated surgery can be a measure of failure of the primary surgery. Future reoperations might be avoided if the cause is recognized and procedures or devices modified accordingly. Reoperations result in costs to both patient and the health care system. This paper proposes a new classification system for reoperations in end-stage ankle arthritis, and analyzes reoperation rates for ankle joint replacement and arthrodesis surgeries.”(6)
These doctors looked at data with a 25% re-operation rate in patients.
Addressing the underlying cause of ankle arthritis – joint instability – in order to avoid ankle surgery
Prolotherapy offers a non-surgical option which corrects the underlying ligament damage and ankle joint instability which led to arthritis in the first place. It is a regenerative injection procedure in which a dextrose-based proliferant solution is injected into the joint, and along the ligaments of the ankle.
Prolotherapy injections create a mild inflammatory reaction in the area of damaged tissue. This dramatically increases the blood supply to an area where the blood supply is usually weak. This signals the body that healing is needed.
Published research from our Caring Medical doctors, that appeared in Clinical Medicine Insights Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders, we discussed this patient case:
- A 59-year-old female patient presented with a history of three years of right ankle pain following a lateral sprain. The patient was unable to walk more than 30 feet without severe ankle pain and had ceased all weight-bearing recreational activities.
- Cortisone therapy had been unsuccessful and ankle fusion had been recommended.
- Based on X-ray and MRI findings, the patient was diagnosed with osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis of the talus, and synovitis. Serologic tests were suggestive of scleroderma (rheumatic disease).
- The patient received four stem cell/Prolotherapy treatments over a period of eight months.
- At the second treatment, the patient reported the ability to stand for long periods and walk for half a mile without pain.
- At the third treatment, she reported an improved range of motion, less frequent pain, and ability to take two-mile walks on hilly, uneven ground, although steep climbs still induced pain.
- These gains were maintained throughout the treatment period.(7)
Other research that supports the use of PRP and stem cells in ankle osteoarthritis patients includes:
Research from doctors in Iran found that stem cell injections into the ankle in patients with ankle osteoarthritis were safe, effective, and clinically beneficial long-term.(8)
In recent research, doctors from Rizzoli Orthopedic Institute, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy examined bone marrow-derived stem cells and their impact on osteochondral lesions of the talus in ankle osteoarthritis. Here is a summary of their research:
- Ankle osteoarthritis is a challenging pathology, often requiring surgical treatments. In young patients, joint-sparing, biologic procedures would be desirable.
- Recently, a few reports have described the efficacy of bone marrow stem cells in osteoarthritis. Considering the good outcomes of one-step bone marrow-derived cells transplantation (BMDCT) for osteochondral lesions of the talus, the doctors applied this procedure for in concomitant ankle osteoarthritis. (The surgical implantation of a “patch” scaffold from donor cartilage).
- 56 patients, with an average age of 35.6 years (range 16-50), who suffered from osteochondral lesions of the talus and ankle osteoarthritis, were treated using BMDCT.
- The whole clinical outcome had a remarkable improvement at 12 months, a further amelioration at 24 months and a lowering trend at 36 months. Early osteoarthritis had better outcomes. 16 patients required another treatment and they were considered failures. (9)
In April 2017, researchers in Japan reported on the safety and effectiveness of an intra-articular injection of PRP in ankle osteoarthritis patients during a 24-week treatment period. They found that PRP resulted in no serious adverse effects and significantly reduced pain in the patients with ankle osteoarthritis.(10)
The most common ligament injury is the ankle sprain. Taping and exercising for this condition often have only temporary results. Prolotherapy can permanently strengthen the ligaments of the ankle, eliminating chronic ankle sprains, subluxations, and instability. Because Prolotherapy stimulates the repair of the soft tissue injuries and instability that are associated with bunions, heel spurs, plantar fasciitis, ankle sprains, fallen arches, and Achilles tendinopathy, chronic pain from these conditions is eliminated. For advanced degenerative conditions, Cellular Prolotherapy (PRP or Stem cell Prolotherapy) is often utilized for accelerated recovery.
Cortisone injections, NSAIDs, and surgery work against a patient’s best long-term interest because they are degenerative by nature. Patients with chronic ankle and foot pain need regenerative options to stop the degenerative process. This is also true for athletes with acute foot and ankle problems, as well as anyone who wishes to stay active without taking extended time off for surgical recovery.
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