Prolotherapy for Ankle Osteoarthritis
In this article we will make the connect from ankle ligament instability to ankle osteoarthritis, to the need for ankle fusion or ankle replacement surgery. We will also present Prolotherapy as an alternative to this predicament.
Recently, doctors from Rutgers University in New Jersey published their findings in the Journal of orthopaedic research that listed the top five common athletic injuries as high risk factors for developing osteoarthritis, among the top 5? Ankle instability.(1)
Would you like to ask a question about Ankle Osteoarthritis? Get help and information from our Caring Medical staff.
In December 2016, the Journal of British Sports Medicine published the Executive Committee of the International Ankle Consortium position paper on the progression of ankle instability caused by chronic ankle sprains to disabling full-blown osteoarthritis and the need for ankle surgery or fusion.
That position paper which was compiled by researchers from the University of Kentucky, University College Dublin, UK National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine, the University of Delaware, University of North Carolina, among many other medical universities stated:
“this 2016 position paper with recommendations for information implementation and continued research based on the paradigm that lateral ankle sprain and the development of chronic ankle instability, serve as a conduit to a significant global healthcare burden.
We intend our recommendations to serve as a mechanism to promote efforts to improve prevention and early management of lateral ankle sprain.
We believe this will reduce the prevalence of chronic ankle instability and associated sequelae that have led to the broader public health burdens of decreased physical activity and early onset ankle joint post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Ultimately, this can contribute to healthier lifestyles and promotion of physical activity.”(2)
In summary ankle sprains cause ankle osteoarthritis by creating an environment of joint instability caused by weakened ligaments. Treat the unstable ligaments – prevent a worsening of factors that lead to advancing ankle osteoarthritis.
In 2010, our Caring Medical research team published this abstract in the medical journal Practical Pain Management:
- The recurrence rate for lateral ankle sprains has been reported to be as high as 80%.
- Up to 40% of individuals have residual ankle symptoms due to chronic instability
- One study suggested 70% to 80% of patients with chronic ankle instability end up with arthritic ankles.
- Long term residual symptoms from ankle sprains that do not heal can result in ongoing problems including pain, stiffness, limited range of motion and the inability to exercise or walk long distances and osteoarthritis.(3)
Damage to ankle ligaments
The ankle consists of an intricate structure of bones, ligaments, tendons and muscles. This complexity provides stability but also exposes the ankle to damage and instability through chronic ankle sprain. That these injuries commonly lead to osteoarthritis so we should not be surprised by research that confirms this.
Damage to ankle ligaments, including the talofibular ligament, can bring about ligament laxity. This allows the ankle bones to rub together abnormally, having a degenerative effect on the joint often demonstrated by ankle popping and dislocations.
As a person continues to walk and bear weight on the unstable ankle joint, the bones abnormally wear and tear on the cartilage. In this situation, the body will attempt to stabilize the joint. Because ligaments have less of a blood supply compared to other tissues, such as muscle, they are less likely to heal on their own. The joint will typically inflame, in an attempt to bring healing cells to the joint. An overgrowth of bone is also likely to occur in an attempt to stabilize the joint.
Diagnosis and treatment of ankle arthritis
Traditional diagnosis will often include the collection of one’s medical history; a physical examination; discussion of the frequency, intensity and duration of the pain; identification of the location of the pain and a history treatment since the onset of the pain. Sometimes a physician may analyze how the patient walks, known as a gait analysis, to determine how the bones in the leg and foot align while walking. X-rays will usually show the spacing between bones and the level of cartilage degeneration.
Conventional treatment usually starts with pain relievers and anti-inflammatories to reduce pain and swelling. Arch supports in the shoes may be recommended to compensate for the change in one’s gait and to cushion the act of walking.
Custom-made shoes with stiff soles and rocker bottoms are not uncommon. Steroid injections such as cortisone are often prescribed in order to bring temporary pain relief. Most patients with ankle arthritis have been instructed by their physician to discontinue sports and activities which worsen the pain.
Arthroscopic surgery is quite a popular traditional medicine recommendation to “clean” the joint area of ragged and inflamed tissue, bone spurs that have developed as cartilage has degenerated and possible bone and tissue fragments from injury.
Ankle Fusion and Ankle Replacement
For a much more detailed discussion ankle surgery please see our article on Ankle Fusion and Ankle Replacement.
Arthrodesis is a surgical pain relieving procedure that fuses the bones of the joint making it one continuous bone. The surgeon uses pins or screws and rods to hold the bones in the proper position while the joints fuse. This also dramatically reduces mobility and range of motion.
Doctors at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University in Korea writing in the journal Foot and Ankle International found:
“Ankle fusion combined with calcaneal sliding osteotomy (surgeons break your heal bone to restructure the joint complex) can be an effective operative option for ball and socket ankle deformity with advanced arthritis. In spite of increased complication rate, reliable pain relief, and restoration of gait ability through correcting hindfoot malalignment could improve the quality of life.”(4)
In other words you need to gamble reliable pain relief against increased complication rate and the chance for greater pain and immobility.
As far as ankle replacement goes, this is addressed in a November 2016 paper from Canadian University researchers who also published in the journal Foot and Ankle International.
“Repeated surgery can be a measure of failure of the primary surgery. Future reoperations might be avoided if the cause is recognized and procedures or devices modified accordingly. Reoperations result in costs to both patient and the health care system. This paper proposes a new classification system for reoperations in end-stage ankle arthritis, and analyzes reoperation rates for ankle joint replacement and arthrodesis surgeries.”(5)
These doctors looked at data with a 25% re-operation rate in patients.
Comprehensive Prolotherapy – an alternative to surgery for ankle arthritis
Prolotherapy offers a non-surgical option which corrects the underlying ligament damage which led to the arthritis in the first place. It is a regenerative injection procedure in which a dextrose-based proliferant solution is injected into the joint, and along the ligaments of the ankle.
Prolotherapy injections create a mild inflammatory reaction in the area of damaged tissue. This dramatically increases the blood supply to an area where the blood supply is usually weak. This signals the body that healing is needed.
Published research from our Caring Medical doctors, that appeared in Clinical Medicine Insights Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders, we discussed this patient case:
- A 59-year-old female patient presented with a history of three years of right ankle pain following a lateral sprain. The patient was unable to walk more than 30 feet without severe ankle pain and had ceased all weight-bearing recreational activities.
- Cortisone therapy had been unsuccessful and ankle fusion had been recommended.
- Based on X-ray and MRI findings, the patient was diagnosed with osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis of the talus, and synovitis. Serologic tests were suggestive of scleroderma (rheumatic disease).
- The patient received four stem cell/Prolotherapy treatments over a period of eight months.
- At second treatment, the patient reported the ability to stand for long periods and walk for half a mile without pain.
- At third treatment, she reported improved range of motion, less frequent pain, and ability to take two mile walks on hilly, uneven ground, although steep climbs still induced pain.
- These gains were maintained throughout the treatment period.(6)
Other research that supports the use of PRP and stem cells in ankle osteoarthritis patients includes:
Research from doctors in Iran found that stem cell injections into the ankle in patients with ankle osteoarthritis was safe, effective, and clinically beneficial long-term.(7)
In recent research, doctors from Rizzoli Orthopedic Institute, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy examined bone marrow derived stem cells and their impact on osteochondral lesions of the talus in ankle osteoarthritis. Here is a summary of their research:
- Ankle osteoarthritis is a challenging pathology, often requiring surgical treatments. In young patients, joint sparing, biologic procedures would be desirable.
- Recently, a few reports have described the efficacy of bone marrow stem cells in osteoarthritis. Considering the good outcomes of one-step bone marrow derived cells transplantation (BMDCT) for osteochondral lesions of the talus, the doctors applied this procedure for in concomitant ankle osteoarthritis. (The surgical implantation of a “patch” scaffold from donor cartilage).
- 56 patients, with an average age of 35.6 years (range 16-50), who suffered from osteochondral lesions of the talus and ankle osteoarthritis, were treated using BMDCT.
- The whole clinical outcome had a remarkable improvement at 12 months, a further amelioration at 24 months and a lowering trend at 36 months. Early osteoarthritis had better outcomes. 16 patients required another treatment and they were considered failures. (8)
In April 2017, researchers in Japan reported on the safety and effectiveness of an intra-articular injection of PRP in ankle osteoarthritis patients during a 24-week treatment period. They found that PRP resulted in no serious adverse effects and significantly reduced pain in the patients with ankle osteoarthritis.(9)
The most common ligament injury is the ankle sprain. Taping and exercising for this condition often have only temporary results. Prolotherapy can permanently strengthen the ligaments of the ankle, eliminating chronic ankle sprains and subluxations. Because Prolotherapy stimulates the repair of the soft tissue injuries and subsequent instability that are associated with bunions, heel spurs, plantar fasciitis, ankle sprains, fallen arches, and Achilles tendinopathy, chronic pain from these conditions is eliminated. For advanced degenerative conditions, Cellular Prolotherapy is often utilized for accelerated recovery. In conditions, such as tarsal tunnel syndrome and Morton’s neuroma, in addition to Prolotherapy to repair the underlying joint instability, Nerve Release Injection Therapy provides instant relief for entrapped nerves.
Cortisone injections, NSAIDs, and surgery work against a patient’s best long-term interest because they are degenerative by nature. Patients with chronic ankle and foot pain need regenerative options to stop the degenerative process. This is also true for athletes with acute foot and ankle problems, as well as anyone who wishes to stay active without taking extended time off for surgical recovery. It is for this reason that many people are choosing to Prolo their ankle and foot pain away!
Would you like to ask a question about Ankle Osteoarthritis?
Get help and information from our Caring Medical staff.
1 Carbone A, Rodeo S. A review of current understanding of post-traumatic osteoarthritis resulting from sports injuries. J Orthop Res. 2016 Jun 16. [Google Scholar]
2 Gribble PA, Bleakley CM, Caulfield BM, Docherty CL, Fourchet F, Fong DT, Hertel J, Hiller CE, Kaminski TW, McKeon PO, Refshauge KM. 2016 consensus statement of the International Ankle Consortium: prevalence, impact and long-term consequences of lateral ankle sprains. Br J Sports Med. 2016 Jun 3:bjsports-2016. [Google Scholar]
3 Hauser R, Hauser M, Cukla J. Dextrose prolotherapy injection for chronic ankle pain. Pract Pain Manag. 2010;10(1):70-6. [Google Scholar]
4. Cho BK, Park KJ, Choi SM, Kang SW, Lee HK. Ankle Fusion Combined With Calcaneal Sliding Osteotomy for Severe Arthritic Ball and Socket Ankle Deformity. Foot Ankle Int. 2016 Dec;37(12):1310-1316. [Google Scholar]
5 Younger AS, Glazebrook M, Veljkovic A, et al A Coding System for Reoperations Following Total Ankle Replacement and Ankle Arthrodesis. Foot Ankle Int. 2016 Nov;37(11):1157-1164. Epub 2016 Aug 16. [Google Scholar]
6 Hauser RA, Orlofsky A. Regenerative Injection Therapy with Whole Bone Marrow Aspirate for Degenerative Joint Disease: A Case Series. Clinical Medicine Insights Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2013;6:65-72. doi:10.4137/CMAMD.S10951. [Google Scholar]
7 Emadedin M, GHORBANI LM, Fazeli R, Mohseni F, Moghadasali R, Mardpour S, Hosseini SE, Niknejadi M, Moeininia F, AGHAHOSSEIN FA, BAGHABAN EM. Long-term follow-up of intra-articular injection of autologous mesenchymal stem cells in patients with knee, ankle, or hip osteoarthritis. [Google Scholar]
8. Buda R, Castagnini F, Cavallo M, Ramponi L, Vannini F, Giannini S. “One-step” bone marrow-derived cells transplantation and joint debridement for osteochondral lesions of the talus in ankle osteoarthritis: clinical and radiological outcomes at 36 months. Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery. 2016 Jan 1;136(1):107-16. [Google Scholar]
9. Fukawa T, Yamaguchi S, Akatsu Y, Yamamoto Y, Akagi R, Sasho T. Safety and Efficacy of Intra-articular Injection of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Patients With Ankle Osteoarthritis. Foot Ankle Int. 2017 Apr 1:1071100717700377. [Google Scholar]