Treating bone spurs in the shoulder is difficult. Even with surgery.
Ross A. Hauser, MD. Caring Medical Florida
Danielle R. Steilen-Matias, MMS, PA-C. Caring Medical Florida
David N. Woznica, MD. Caring Medical Regenerative Medicine Clinics, Oak Park, IL
Treating bone spurs in the shoulder is difficult
In our clinics, we attack the problem of bone spurs in the shoulder non-surgically. How we do this is by addressing the problems of the shoulder that is causing the formation of the bone spur in the first place. Shoulder instability. This is a shoulder looseness causing unnatural, destructive hypermobility in the shoulder leading to a situation of rapid degenerative osteoarthritis.
- The shoulder forms bone spurs in a vain attempt to keep your shoulder from moving in a way it is not supposed to.
- When the shoulder becomes unstable or weak, bone spurs will form to help prevent the shoulder from hyper-extending, dislocating, or subluxing (falling out of place) and causing more damage to itself.
- The bone spurring is occurring as the body’s means to try to protect the shoulder.
Unfortunately, over time, the bone spurs themselves become the problem as they continue to grow and impede function. It is at this time, surgery to shave down the bone spurs or shoulder replacement surgery is considered.
Is arthroscopic surgery for bone spur removal and shoulder clean up the way to go?
For some people, arthroscopic surgery for bone spur removal is highly successful. We usually do not see these people in our clinics. We see the ones that arthroscopic surgery for bone spur removal was not very successful and has made their situation worse. This article is for those people and to explain to people suffering from shoulder pain how this can happen. Here are some typical patient stories:
- I had a cleanout surgery, the main goal was to shave down the bone spurs. After the surgery, my shoulder pain was worse. I was told that my surgery was successful, the bone spurs were shaved down. My pain continued and now includes numbness all the way into my fingers. My shoulder subluxes constantly. Because of the numbness, I am bouncing back and forth between orthopedists and neurosurgeons. No one seems to have any answers for me.
The bone spurs are gone, but the shoulder pain remains
- I lost a lot of range of motion, putting on my clothes, combing my hair, all big problems for me. My x-ray revealed that I had a lot of shoulder damage. The treatment plan was for cortisone and physical therapy. After a few months, I had no improvement. I was recommended to a shoulder specialist and not surprisingly I was told surgery should be considered because I had massive bone spurs. I agreed. Following the surgery, I had less use of my arm than before and now my shoulder routinely popped out of place. A return visit to the surgeon offered another recommendation for surgery. This time a reverse shoulder replacement.
Let’s point out again that many people obtain a great benefit from arthroscopic surgery for bone spur removal. These are not the people we see. The people we see are the ones with the stories.
For many people, are the only things holding the shoulder together are the bone spurs
What is happening here? Why didn’t the surgery work for these people? Simply the bone spurs, for many people, are the only things holding the shoulder together. When you remove the bone spurs, the shoulder has “nothing to hang on.” Below we will make a treatment recommendation of Prolotherapy injections that regenerate and strengthen the shoulder capsule soft tissue.
Treating bone spurs in the shoulder is difficult, as judged by the many surgical recommendations trying to solve the problem
Here is a brief list of surgical recommendations published by doctors at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) in the journal Clinics in Sports Medicine.(1) In the first sentence of this paper, the doctors note: “The management of glenohumeral osteoarthritis is difficult in young, active individuals.”
Here are the summary learning points:
- After nonoperative management fails, arthroscopic debridement with concomitant procedures such as:
- loose body removal,
- capsular release, unfreezing a frozen shoulder
- shoulder labral debridement, please see our article Doctors question the effectiveness of shoulder labrum surgery
- synovectomy (inflamed synovial tissue removal),
- osteophyte resection (Scraping down bone spurs),
- bursectomy (removing the shoulder bursa),
- subacromial decompression (removing bone that is compressing tendons), (Please see our article Shoulder impingement syndrome | Surgeons tell patients to say no to surgery in new research)
- microfracture (drilling holes into the shoulder bone to inspire cartilage repair),
- and biceps tenotomy or tenodesis (Cutting away damaged bicep tissue)
What you see in these treatments is “cutting away,” “removing,” “scraping, drilling.” You do not see repairing. This is why treating bone spurs in the shoulder is difficult with surgical treatments.
Bone Spurs and Shoulder Instability
A bone spur (more technically known as osteophyte) is an abnormal bony overgrowth that extends out from the normal bone.
The shoulder reacts in many ways to its own instability.
- First, the joint can swell in order to help keep everything in place.
- When that no longer works long-term, the body then recruits nearby muscles to help stabilize the joint. These muscles can be in a constant state of contraction as they try to stabilize the joint, but then also have to allow for regular movement. In the process, patients can develop painful muscle spasms (as it is not the muscle’s job to constantly contract to stabilize joints) from the extra load of work they are incurring.
The muscles may then start to degenerate and the body is left with one other option for stabilization: to start to overgrow bone tissue as a permanent way to stabilize the joint. This overgrowth of bone is the “bone spur” (as it typically spurs out from the joint). If left untreated, bone spurs can become very large and very painful. They may cause pain with certain motions (i.e. a shoulder bone spur could cause pain when it pinches on tissue every time you raise your arm over your head) or significantly limit your range of motion due to pain.
Shoulder Bone Spurs Treated with Prolotherapy at Caring Medical
Can Prolotherapy injections help?
- Prolotherapy is a non-surgical treatment that is designed to help repair the painful area. Prolotherapy is an injection technique utilizing simple sugar or dextrose. It involves no cutting, suturing, sewing, or stapling. The patient is also encouraged to exercise while undergoing Prolotherapy, whereas after surgery there are careful limits to activity.
Are these injections realistic in helping a bone spur without surgical intervention?
Recently, we had a young man come to see us at Caring Medical with shoulder pain and limited range of motion. His pain could be explained by various tendon and ligament injuries of the shoulder but the restriction of motion could not, thus an x-ray was ordered. As you can see on the x-ray (above), he has a huge bone spur on the bottom of his humeral head (essentially the “ball” that helps the shoulder rotated around the way it does). This could explain why his range of motion was so limited. The extra bony growth prevented him from fully moving his shoulder. While Prolotherapy can resolve pain in cases like this, some patients still may end up needing surgery to remove the bone spur and get back the full range of motion.
At Caring Medical, we see many patients whose only desire is to get out of pain. Had this been the case with this gentleman, Prolotherapy would be a great solitary treatment option by itself. However, at such a young age, he also desires a full range of motion to stay active for the rest of his adult life. In this case, surgery may be warranted to allow him greater motion while Prolotherapy will ease pain and treat the underlying cause: joint instability.
Prolotherapy is always a great option when it comes to chronic joint pain but if you have a significant restriction of motion in a joint, a plain and inexpensive x-ray may provide valuable information. It illustrates that “yes” sometimes surgery is needed! However, if you don’t treat the underlying cause of the bone spur (the joint instability), it will most likely come back.
If you have a bone spur in your shoulder, as evidenced by an x-ray or MRI, you have a few treatment options.
- If you do not have any pain associated with the spur, you can do nothing. Not all bone spurs are painful and require treatment.
- If you do have pain, however, you can take medications and/or do physical therapy to manage the pain.
- You also may get a surgical consult and possibly receive surgery to shave the bone spurs, resurface the bone, or replace the shoulder joint. This may be necessary depending on the size and/or the number of spurs.
- Lastly, you can receive Prolotherapy treatments to help stabilize the shoulder and ease pain. Prolotherapy is an injection technique used to stimulate healing of injured tissue. While Prolotherapy itself cannot get rid of a spur, it can treat the underlying cause: joint instability. It can help to alleviate pain and allow for better shoulder range of motion as well, depending on the size and location of the spur. Physical therapy is also a great adjunct treatment to Prolotherapy for the proper management and treatment of bone spurs.
Ross Hauser, MD explains and demonstrates a Prolotherapy treatment to the shoulder.
- This particular person is not sedated. The treatment is well tolerated. The treatment begins at 1:36.
- The first injection was intra-articular, directly into the shoulder joint. Next the acromioclavicular joint. The whole shoulder is being treated to help address issues of rotator cuff tendon damage and tears as well as tendinosis.
- Next are the posterior shoulder structures including the posterior joint capsule as well as the various ligament attachments in the back of the shoulder.
- Next the interior structures in the front of the shoulder are done including the ligaments as well as the various rotator cuff tendon attachments including the Supraspinatus tendon.
- Prolotherapy is effective for rotator cuff tears, labral tears and biceps tendonitis, various tendonitis as well as shoulder instability.
- Finally treating the acromioclavicular joint, or AC joint as the biceps tendon attachments.
If you have questions about your shoulder problems, you can get help and information from our Caring Medical Staff.
1 Takamura KM, Chen JB, Petrigliano FA. Nonarthroplasty Options for the Athlete or Active Individual with Shoulder Osteoarthritis. Clinics in Sports Medicine. 2018 Oct 1;37(4):517-26. [Google Scholar]