Carpal tunnel syndrome: Non-surgical injections and nerve release treatments

Ross Hauser, MD, Caring Medical Florida
Danielle R. Steilen-Matias, MMS, PA-C, Caring Medical Florida
David N. Woznica, MD, Caring Medical Regenerative Medicine Clinics, Oak Park, IL

Carpal tunnel syndrome: Non-surgical injections and nerve release treatments

In this article, we will explore various treatment options for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome with a focus on the evidence for non-surgical treatment options.

A series of new studies affecting patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome are questioning the success and validity of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome surgery and how accurate recommendations to patients following surgery are as to when they can return to work. This is a question that is inspired by new research:

When your surgeon recommends you to Carpal Tunnel Syndrome surgery, ask the surgeon if they will have the surgery themselves if they were you. The likelihood is that the surgeon would say no.

We are not going to comment on this study from the Journal of Plastic Surgery Hand Surgeons, (1) we will only tell you this appeared in a medical journal written for and by hand surgeons.

  • One objective of this medical review was “to study if surgeons’ perceptions of the benefit of six surgical procedures differ if they consider themselves as patients instead of treating a patient.”
  • Surgeons who considered themselves as patients had less confident perception on the benefit of carpal tunnel release compared with surgeons, who considered treating patients.”
  • “Hand surgeons and hand therapists had similar perception of the benefits of surgery. The expected functional result was regarded as the most important factor in directing the decision about the treatment.”(Good post-surgical function,  the most important outcome of the surgery was considered a marginally successful.)

CONCLUSIONS: “Surgeons tended to be more unanimous in their opinions in cases, where there is limited evidence on treatment effect. The agreement between surgeons and therapists implies that the clinical perspectives are similar, and probably reflect the reality well.” The reality of a less than hoped for outcome.

Is carpal tunnel syndrome surgery only a short-term treatment or does it work in the long run?

As a second opinion, let’s present evidence from Dutch surgeon / researchers who in April 2019 wrote in the journal Acta Neurochirurgica (neurosurgery).(2)

  • The effectiveness of the surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is well known in the short term. However, limited data is available about the long-term outcome after carpal tunnel release (CTR).
  • At long-term follow-up, 87 patients (40.3%) completed a questionnaire about the severity of symptoms and their functional abilities in the operated on hand.
  • Mean score on Symptom Severity Scale and Functional Status Scale improved at 8 months and did not change significantly after 8 months.  The patients were then followed up for 9 years.
  • At 9 years favorable outcome was reported in 81.6%.

CONCLUSIONS: Carpal tunnel release is a robust treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome and its effect persists after a period of 9 years. The most important factor associated with long-term outcomes is treatment outcome after about 8 months and to a lesser extent functional complaints pre-operatively.

What all this means is that at 9 years after surgery, 4 out of 5 patients reported favorable results. But if you had functional complaints before surgery, the chances are less optimistic for long-term success.

Many people have great success with carpal tunnel surgery. Many people have less than optimal results. The people we see in our office typically have had initial good results but the continued wear and tear of their job or activities have caused the numbness to return, some pain to return, and they are proceeding down the path of repetitive stress injury and a lifetime of wrist braces as surgery the second time may not be an answer or even advisable.

I need to get back to work, what is a realistic recovery time from Carpal Tunnel Surgery? The answer is “Paradoxical”

Maybe, the surgeons in the above study are aware of what other research is saying. No one has a good answer to the question of when people can return to work after carpal tunnel surgery. This is an editorial from the Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. (3) It is based in part of data from American workers examined in US work environments.

The concern is aging or long-term workers at the same job where Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a risk

  • “Work participation and long work careers are becoming critical for the sustainability of aging societies. Carpal Tunnel Release is a fairly common procedure, often carried out due to difficulties or inability to perform work duties. It is rather paradoxical that we know so little about the extent to which this procedure can restore work ability and enhance return to earlier or amended duties and not even how long it typically takes to return to work after Carpal Tunnel Release.”

The problem is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Diagnosis may not be correct. Therefore a Carpal Tunnel surgery may not fix what is wrong


In 2017 surgeons at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Pennsylvania published guidelines calling for a much more extensive examination of patients suffering from Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Why? Because many patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome may not have Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.


In this study, (4) the researchers are saying: the problem of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is recognizing and managing other potential sites of peripheral nerve compression.

Here is what the research says:

  • Is it Ulnar Tunnel Syndrome / Guyon canal syndrome? The ulnar nerve may become compressed as it travels through the outer edges of the wrist
  • Is it the posterior interosseous nerve (a forearm nerve branch that travels in the back of the forearm)? That nerve may become entrapped in the central region of the forearm as it travels through the radial tunnel, which results in pain without motor weakness.
  • Is the nerve trapped not on the wrist but the forearm? The median nerve may become entrapped in the proximal forearm, which can result in a variety of symptoms.
  • Carpal Tunnel overnight? Is it Spontaneous neuropathy of the anterior interosseous nerve (a forearm nerve branch that travels in the front of the forearm).

The solution to understanding which of these problems may be impacting the patient? “Electrodiagnostic and imaging studies may aid surgeons in the diagnosis of these syndromes; however, a thorough physical examination is paramount to localize compressed segments of these nerves. An understanding of the anatomy of each of these nerve areas allows practitioners to appreciate a patient’s clinical findings and helps guide surgical decompression.”

So do I really have Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a progressively painful hand and arm condition caused by pressure, damage, or repeated injury to the median nerve at the wrist. Since pressure on the median nerve causes carpal tunnel syndrome, then anything that crowds, irritates or compresses the nerve in the canal, can lead to the symptoms. This pressure can come from swelling or anything that would cause the tunnel to become smaller.

Wrist surgery has limited and widely varying degrees of success in treating carpal tunnel syndrome. Surgery can also make the condition worse, especially when the condition has been misdiagnosed.

Seldom do patients and athletes find relief from the “Carpal Tunnel” complaints of pain in the hand and elbow with physical therapy and surgery because the diagnosis is so often wrong. The most common reason for pain in the elbow, referring to the hand, is weakness in the annular ligament, not from Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. (Please see our accompanying article on Comprehensive Prolotherapy and PRP tennis elbow and elbow instability injections).

Cervical ligament weakness and annular ligament laxity should always be evaluated prior to making the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome.

A physician who understands the referral patterns of these ligaments should evaluate the individual with this condition before surgery is considered. Because most physicians do not know the referral pain patterns of ligaments, they do not realize that cervical vertebrae 4 and 5 and the annular ligament can refer pain to the thumb, index, and middle fingers. Ligament laxity can also cause numbness.

This picture illustrates non-surgical nerve release methods for Carpal tunnel syndrome

David Woznica, MD, performs non-surgical nerve release for a patient with carpal tunnel syndrome.

Telling the difference between Signs and Symptoms of “true” versus “pseudo” carpal tunnel syndrome

  • Symptoms typical of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    • Numbness in the thumb, index and middle finger
    • Thumb weakness, sense of loss of strength
    • Atrophy of the thenar eminence the muscles on the palm of the hand at the base of the thumb.
    • Positive Tinel’s sign – a tingling or numbness when a health care provider presses on suspect nerve entrapment
    • Positive Phalen’s test -tingling or numbness when the patient puts the back of the hands – back to back with fingers pointing down.
    • Positive EMG/NCV – Nerve conduction studies that show clear disruption of nerve function
  • Pseudo Carpal Tunnel Syndrome when it is thought to be Carpal Tunnel Syndrome but it is not
    • Numbiness, a non-descript intermittent numbness
    • Tenderness over the annular ligament elbow
    • Normal thumb strength
    • Hand muscles not atrophied
    • Negative Tinel’s sign
    • Negative Phalen’s test
    • Negative EMG/NCV

As noted earlier, the pain experienced in the wrist is often referred pain and may be due to an injured or weakened annular ligament which may lead to a misdiagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome.

Is surgery inevitable with a carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis? Although the standard practice is to inject steroids or to prescribe anti-inflammatory medications, the end result with a diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome is usually surgery.

Another surgical problem: Inappropriate Preoperative Gabapentinoid and post-surgical opioid problems

Many people are delaying surgery or on a list to get surgery and they may have to wait. While they are waiting or delaying they may be prescribed Gabapentin, an anti-epileptic drug, or an anticonvulsant drug. Gabapentin is prescribed in adults to treat neuropathic pain such as that found in carpal tunnel syndrome.

A May 2020 article in The Journal of Hand Surgery (5) issued these cautions on why patients were being prescribed Gabapentin when they should not be.

  • Gabapentinoids are commonly prescribed for the treatment of neuropathic pain but are not recommended for the primary treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.
  • The investigators examined the preoperative use of gabapentinoid for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome and to determine whether preoperative exposure is associated with persistent gabapentinoid and opioid use after carpal tunnel release.

Patients continued to fill gabapentinoid prescriptions at 91 to 180 days after surgery

Results:

  • Of the 56,593 patients without a previous gabapentinoid or opioid prescription prior to diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome, 3,474 patients (6%) filled a gabapentinoid prescription before carpal tunnel release.
  • Overall, 835 patients (24% of the preoperative users) continued to fill gabapentinoid prescriptions at 91 to 180 days after surgery.
  • Of the preoperative gabapentinoid users, 20% (702 patients) continued to fill opioid prescriptions at 91 to 80 days after release.

Gabapentinoids should be avoided when possible

Conclusions: Despite a lack of evidence to support the use of gabapentinoids for carpal tunnel syndrome, 6% of patients are prescribed a gabapentinoid prior to surgery, and prolonged use is common. Given the effectiveness of surgical release and the risks associated with gabapentinoids, greater attention is needed to ensure that gabapentinoids are prescribed appropriately, avoided when possible, and stopped after  surgery.

Caring Medical’s approach to carpal tunnel syndrome – stability and strength in wrist and elbow

Actual carpal tunnel syndromes are caused by compression of the median nerve and pseudo carpal tunnel syndromes are caused by ligament weakness. They both may present with the same or similar symptoms but have entirely different pathology.

In our treatments we utilize:

  • Comprehensive Prolotherapy treatment. This involves multiple injections of dextrose-based solution to the various ligament attachments around the elbow or wrist. A treatment to the wrist area is demonstrated below. Injections are made to the injured and weakened structures of the wrist and elbow. The goal is to stimulate a natural inflammatory response in the weakened ligament tissues and initiate a repair of these tissues. The mechanism works by way of the Prolotherapy treatments sending regenerative cells to the areas of the wrist or elbow that need healing, and collagen is laid down. Collagen is an important building block of soft tissue. This strengthens the weak wrist and elbow ligaments. They become tighter and stronger, and the original cause of pain and symptoms is eliminated.

Prolotherapy treatment demonstrated and described

In the video below, Ross Hauser MD, demonstrates and describes Prolotherapy to the wrist. A summary of the video is below.

Summary:

  • The patient in the video is a personal fitness trainer. She is very physically fit. She does many exercises that puts a lot of pressure on her wrists – push-ups, zumba, yoga.
  • The pain in her wrist is making it very difficult for her to demonstrate the various exercises to her classes.
  • We are injecting both rows of the carpal bones. The wrist is comprised of 8 bones and 27 ligaments. It is easy to see why a treatment that focuses on strengthening and repairing the wrist ligaments would be so important to someone with significant wrist pain.
  • We see many people with wrist pain on the ulnar side where Triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries occur.
  • The video shows treatment around the navicular bone and the scaphoid lunate and surrounding ligaments. We see a lot of injuries there.
  • The average person requires 3 to 6 treatments.
  • Prolotherapy injections can be very effective for wrist instability. When we treat the wrist, we treat the entire wrist not only the ulnar side.

A Case study of a 42 year of a female athlete with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

We have seen countless patients with wrist, elbow, carpal tunnel type syndromes. So have many of our Prolotherapy colleges. In Turkey, doctors reported this case history in the British Journal of Sports Medicine: (6)

  • Forty-two years old recreational female athlete had Carpal Tunnel diagnosis in both wrists for 6 months.
  • Treated with NSAIDs, B6 vitamin and ultrasound therapy were used.
  • Symptoms eased but healing was not completed.
  • Prolotherapy was used and injected at bone at the enthesis (the ligament attachment to the bone) of the transverse carpal ligament
  • Injections were done 2 weeks apart and 3 injections were done.
  • The patient was prescribed with a home standard exercise program.
  • The patient was reminded at each contact to avoid NSAIDs and new therapies for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome to limit the overuse of the wrist during the treatment period.
  • Results of treatment: Pain scores improved significantly.
  • Results of treatment: Nerve conduction velocity also showed an improvement. The nerves functioned better based on the speed of messages.

The case for Dextrose injections in helping your carpal tunnel problems

In this next study the researchers discuss 5% Dextrose injections. As mentioned above, Prolotherapy treatment involves multiple injections of dextrose-based solution to the various ligament attachments around the elbow or wrist. We must next have a discussion on the dextrose percentages and what it means to you

The percentages of dextrose mean something

In 2016, our Caring Medical research team published a paper in the Clinical medicine insights. Arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders.(7) Here we wrote:

“The most common Prolotherapy agent used in clinical practice is dextrose, with concentrations ranging from 12.5% to 25%. Dextrose is considered to be an ideal proliferant because it is water soluble, a normal constituent of blood chemistry, and can be injected safely into multiple areas and in large quantity.” The reason for the increased percentage is to counteract dilution in the joints. The greater the strength of the dextrose solution the more more healing. So in the paper discussed below 5% dextrose injection is 2 – 3 times weaker than a typical Prolotherapy injection. So let’s see how the 5% or less potent injection does. It does pretty well.

A March 2020 study in the medical journal Pharmaceuticals (8) reviewed the findings of a number of clinical trials which the research team suggested yielded several important findings on regenerative injections in carpal tunnel syndrome.

  • First, considering the effectiveness of symptom relief, D5W (a 5% Dextrose in water solution injection) was likely to be the best alternative for carpal tunnel syndrome, followed by PRP injection.
  • Second, splinting ranked higher than PRP and 5% Dextrose injections in terms of functional recovery. (Splinting can be used in conjunction with
  • Third, corticosteroid and saline injections ranked fourth and fifth, respectively, with respect to clinical effectiveness in providing symptom and function improvement.

The researchers concluded:

  • First, a 5% Dextrose injection (Prolotherapy type)  and PRP injections can be considered useful regimens for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome of mild to moderate severity because both methods yield better effectiveness in terms of symptom relief and functional improvement than corticosteroid and saline injections.
  • Second, the mechanical effect of hydro-dissection (we discuss this below, the separation of the nerve from the surrounding tissue) may substantially contribute to the benefits derived from a 5% Dextrose injection. This procedure is recommended to be performed under ultrasound guidance.
  • Third, splinting provides proper positioning and adequate rest of the wrist in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, and seems crucial for functional recovery. Post-injection splinting should be considered in combination with regenerative injections.

The use of Platelet Rich Plasma therapy for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Like Prolotherapy, Platelet Rich Plasma injections are regenerative in nature, providing stability, tissue repair, and pain relief. The PRP injections are often given with Prolotherapy injections to provide a whole joint treatment.

  • PRP treatment takes your blood, like going for a blood test, and re-introduces the concentrated blood platelets from your blood into areas of the carpal tunnel region.
  • Your blood platelets contain growth and healing factors. When concentrated through simple centrifuging, your blood plasma becomes “rich” in healing factors, thus the name Platelet RICH plasma.
  • The procedure and preparation of therapeutic doses of growth factors consist of an autologous blood collection (blood from the patient), plasma separation (blood is centrifuged), and application of the plasma rich in growth factors (injecting the plasma into the area.) In our office, patients are generally seen every 4-6 weeks. Typically three to six visits are necessary per area.
  • In much of the research surrounding PRP treatments you will see, single injections given and then monitored for months. This is not the way we perform these treatments. In our 27+ years of clinical experience we have noted that degenerative damage requires a more comprehensive approach. Even so, improvements in single shot treatments have been noted in the medical literature.

“PRP represents a promising therapy for patients with mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome”

A May 2020 study from the University in Toronto published in the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (7) reviewed the current research comparing Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy injections, cortisone, and saline injections. They concluded that “PRP represents a promising therapy for patients with mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome; however, included studies were limited as follow-up was short, the studies included patients that were heterogeneous (widespread to be able to isolate on a subgroup that may have had better or lesser success than another group), and the number of included studies was low. Further investigation is necessary to determine the true efficacy and effect of PRP and to better delineate the long-term results in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.”

“Platelet-rich plasma could be an effective treatment of mild to moderate idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome and superior to corticosteroid in improving pain, function, and distal sensory latency of median nerve.”

A December 2019 study published in the journal Clinical Rheumatology (8) looked at patients suffering from mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1: patients received ultrasound-guided PRP injection and group 2 patients received ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection. The researchers in this study closely examined the impact of treatments on the median nerve.

  • The PRP group included 40 females and 9 males. The cortisone group included 41 females and 8 males
  • PRP injection had significantly improved the clinical manifestations, the electrodiagnostic examination  parameters of the median nerve, and the median nerve cross-sectional area at 1 month and 3 months post-injection evaluation in comparison to baseline recordings;
  • Local steroid injection (cortisone) had significantly improved the clinical manifestations,the electrodiagnostic examination  parameters of the median nerve, and the median nerve cross-sectional area at 1 month and 3 months post-injection evaluation in comparison to baseline recordings
  • PRP injection was superior to the local steroid injection in the improvement of clinical manifestations as well as the median nerve motor conduction velocity along the wrist-elbow segment, the sensory latency (how long your nerves take to respond to stimulation)   and the MN sensory conduction (demonstrated by nerve conduction studies), this superiority was observed in the third month follow-up suggesting better outcomes in long-term follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: “Platelet-rich plasma could be an effective treatment of mild to moderate idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome and superior to corticosteroid in improving pain, function, and distal sensory latency of the median nerve.”

Let’s point out here that this is a single PRP injection versus a single cortisone injection. A more comprehensive approach to PRP would likely produce superior results as we have seen in our clinical observations and outcomes.

PRP, Prolotherapy and Non-surgical Nerve Release & Regeneration Injection Therapy for Neuropathy

First, we will discuss a study on PRP alone in the treatment of neuropathy in carpal tunnel syndrome, and then we will discuss non-surgical nerve release.

In a six month follow-up study, university researchers in Taiwan found that Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy effectively relieves pain and improves disability in the patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.(9) In this 2017 research, the team examined a few small reports with short follow-up periods that showed the clinical benefits of Platelet-Rich Plasma for peripheral neuropathy (see below) including one pilot study and one small, non-randomized trial in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

To confirm whether or not PRP was beneficial for carpal tunnel patients, they conducted a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial to assess the 6-month effect of PRP in carpal tunnel syndrome patients.

Sixty patients with single-side mild-to-moderate carpal tunnel syndrome were randomized into two groups of 30, namely the PRP and control groups.

  • In the PRP group, patients were injected with one dose of 3 mL of PRP using ultrasound guidance and the control group received a night splint through the study period.
  • The PRP group exhibited a significant reduction in the pain scores and improved function compared to the those of control group 6 months post-treatment.
  • This study demonstrates that PRP is a safe modality that effectively relieves pain and improves disability in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

Is surgery inevitable with a carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis? Although the standard practice is to inject steroids or to prescribe anti-inflammatory medications, the end result with a diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome is usually surgery.

A patient’s case presentation with unusual swelling of her wrist and then her left hand was going numb

In this video Ross Hauser, MD, presents a patient’s case history. A summary transcript and explanatory notes are below the video.

Video summary:

This is a case history of a patient who came in with an unusual presentation. She had an unusual swelling of her wrist and her left hand was going numb. These are symptoms compatible with carpal tunnel syndrome. We documented her carpal tunnel syndrome by ultrasound imaging. She also had a bifid median nerve which means that the median nerve has split or bifurcated. I wanted to show that on ultrasound. This patient is a good illustration of how wrist instability causes carpal tunnel syndrome so the carpal tunnel is just a bony tunnel through which the median nerve passes through.

This is an ultrasound image of a carpal tunnel patient's bifid median nerve. Bifid or "splitting" of the nerve is somewhat rare but is seen often enough in carpal tunnel syndrome patients. The splitting can occur as a result of wrist instability and may be the cause of numbness and other nerve related problems. In some patients the bifid median nerve remains asymptomatic.

This is an ultrasound image of a carpal tunnel patient’s bifid median nerve. Bifid or “splitting” of the nerve is somewhat rare but is seen often enough in carpal tunnel syndrome patients. The splitting can occur as a result of wrist instability and may be the cause of numbness and other nerve-related problems. In some patients, the bifid median nerve remains asymptomatic.

The question is why do people get carpal tunnel syndrome? What is causing the narrowing or compression of the median nerve in this tunnel?

If the bones in your wrist are hypermobile, floating around, or loose,  you have wrist instability. The bones are moving too much. When the patient then moves her wrist in certain ways, she will get the tingling or numbness. So again, what is causing the carpal tunnel to narrow with those movements? In many people, it is a wrist ligament injury. It is not the carpal tunnel syndrome, but rather the wrist instability causing compression of the median nerve. In some patients, this can be accompanied by a ganglion cyst or a cyst that forms on the back of the wrist.

Non-surgical Nerve Release & Regeneration Injection Therapy and Joint Stabilizing Treatments

Many syndromes involve entrapment of a certain nerve, with carpal tunnel syndrome being one of the most common conditions. In this case, the median nerve, which supplies many of the muscles and sensations in the hand, resides in the carpal tunnel of the wrist. The carpal tunnel walls are lined by bone on the sides and bottom and a tough fibrous tissue on the top called the transverse carpal ligament. The bones that comprise the walls of the carpal tunnel (as in other bony tunnels) are connected to other bones that make up the wrist. When a person sustains a wrist ligament injury, the adjacent bones can move too much, thus narrowing the carpal tunnel. In this instance, NRRIT is performed in combination with Comprehensive Prolotherapy to free the compressed median nerve, often providing instant pain relief, as well as opening the space long-term by correcting the excessive wrist-bone movement by stabilizing this joint.

A key clue that a nerve entrapment syndrome such as carpal tunnel syndrome stems from joint instability is associated cracking, popping, or clicking in the joints near the bony tunnel. On physical examination, other clues include excessive motion or soft joint end feel compared to the non-symptomatic side, as well as tenderness when the ligaments of the nearest joint are palpated and stressed. When these signs or symptoms are not present, the cause of the nerve entrapment is most likely not joint instability. Thus, these are more likely to be appropriate for NRRIT as the primary treatment.

This image shows that one cause of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is median nerve compression. The nerve is compressed by subluxation of the carpal bones and ligament instability.

Nerve Release & Regeneration Injection Therapy, NRRIT is a nerve hydrodissection technique that we have found very successful in releasing peripheral nerve entrapments like those found commonly in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and related syndromes such as Ulnar Tunnel Syndrome / Guyon canal syndrome.

How Many Treatments of NRRIT are Required?

Sometimes only one treatment is needed, but often, three to six visits are needed, especially in cases of severe joint instability where the nerve irritation is located. Patients suffering from nerve pain should not delay seeking medical care for these conditions. This cannot be overemphasized. Permanent nerve damage may occur.

The picture shows an ultrasound image revealing a before and after Nerve Release Injection Therapy treatment. The before image shows an entrapped nerve. In the after image the median nerve is released.

 

 

Summary and discussion

Unfortunately, many patients with elbow and hand pain have been misdiagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome. Carpal tunnel syndrome refers to the entrapment of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist into the hand. The nerve supplies sensation to the skin over the thumb, index, and middle fingers. A typical carpal tunnel syndrome patient will experience pain and numbness in this distribution in the hand.

A comprehensive physical examination to look for nerve compression in the C4-C5 cervical vertebrae and the annular ligament ion the elbow should be made to rule out problems of referred pain to the thumb, index, and middle fingers. Ligament laxity can also cause numbness, as already discussed. Cervical and annular ligament laxity should always be evaluated prior to making the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome.

Do you have questions about your problems with carpal tunnel syndrome? Get help and information from our Caring Medical staff.

1 Leppänen OV, Jokihaara J, Jämsen E, Karjalainen T. Survey of hand surgeons’ and therapists’ perceptions of the benefit of common surgical procedures of the hand. Journal of plastic surgery and hand surgery. 2018 Jan 2;52(1):1-6. [Google Scholar]
2 De Kleermaeker FG, Meulstee J, Bartels RH, Verhagen WI. Long-term outcome after carpal tunnel release and identification of prognostic factors. Acta neurochirurgica. 2019 Feb 19:1-9. [Google Scholar]
3 Viikari-Juntura E. Why do we know so little about return to work after carpal tunnel release? Scand J Work Environ Health. doi:10.5271/sjweh.3771 [Google Scholar]
4 Strohl AB, Zelouf DS. Ulnar tunnel syndrome, radial tunnel syndrome, anterior interosseous nerve syndrome, and pronator syndrome. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2017 Jan;25(1):e1-e10. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-16-00010. [Google Scholar]
5 Billig JI, Sears ED, Gunaseelan V, et al. Inappropriate Preoperative Gabapentinoid Use Among Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome [published online ahead of print, 2020 May 30]. J Hand Surg Am. 2020;S0363-5023(20)30213-6. doi:10.1016/j.jhsa.2020.04.011 [Google Scholar]
6 Örsçelik A, Yasar H, Köroglu O, Seven MM. P-75 Prolotherapy for carpal tunnel syndrome: a case report. [Google Scholar]
7 Hauser RA, Lackner JB, Steilen-Matias D, Harris DK. A systematic review of dextrose prolotherapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain. Clinical medicine insights: Arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders. 2016 Jan;9:CMAMD-S39160. [Google Scholar]
8 Lin CP, Chang KV, Huang YK, Wu WT, Özçakar L. Regenerative Injections Including 5% Dextrose and Platelet-Rich Plasma for the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis. Pharmaceuticals. 2020 Mar;13(3):49. [Google Scholar]
9 Catapano M, Catapano J, Borschel G, Alavania SM, Robinson LR, Mittal N. Effectiveness of platelet rich plasma injections for non-surgical management of carpal tunnel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2019 Dec 7. [Google Scholar]
10 Senna MK, Shaat RM, Ali AA. Platelet-rich plasma in treatment of patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Clinical rheumatology. 2019 Dec 1;38(12):3643-54. [Google Scholar]
11 Wu YT, Ho TY, Chou YC, Ke MJ, Li TY, Huang GS, Chen LC. Six-month efficacy of platelet-rich plasma for carpal tunnel syndrome: A prospective randomized, single-blind controlled trial. Sci Rep. 2017 Dec;7(1):94. [Google Scholar]

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