Cervical spondylosis, chronic neck pain and blurred, distorted vision

Ross A. Hauser, MD.

If you are reading or listening to this article, it is likely that you already know the answer to the question posed: Can a herniated disc in the neck or whiplash cause vision problems? The answer is yes. The next challenge, can it be treated? If you are exploring this article you have probably had treatments with less than hoped-for results. The main reason for your lack of success is that your doctors may have focused solely on the blurry vision and not explored the possibility of a greater problem of the soft tissue damage in your neck causing the blurred, double vision.

Cervical neck instability causes a myriad of symptoms such as pain, dizziness, tinnitus, vertigo, sinusitis, swallowing difficulty, and others. In this article, our focus will be on vision problems.

While vision problems are the focus, it is important to understand that anyone who suffered from a traumatic injury, such as whiplash in a car accident or sports injury, or someone suffering from degenerative problems of the neck, blurred, and double vision is only one component of symptoms. Fixing the problems of blurred vision will be difficult to treat when symptoms of cervical neck instability are not treated. We will provide treatment options below. Common eye complaints that occur with patients who suffered neck injuries, including whiplash, include blurry vision, diplopia (double vision), inability to focus clearly, eye pain, photophobia (eye discomfort brought on by exposure to bright light), palinopsia (an image remains “in sight” even though the image has been removed. “I see things that are no longer there., visual distortions, and a feeling of “wooziness” (like being on a boat – Mal de debarquement syndrome.)

Problems of blurred or double vision can be caused by many problems. This article will focus on the cause of neck instability causing pressure on the nerves, arteries, and veins that run through the cervical spine and into the skull.

Article Summary:

Section 1

Section 2

 

Visual dysfunction (blurred vision) in cervical spondylosis

A January 2023 paper published in the journal Medicine and Pharmacy Reports (1) explained that visual dysfunction (blurred vision) in cervical spondylosis can occur as:

Cause 1: Cervical spondylosis through sympathetic nerve stimulation

The authors write: “Briefly, cervical osteophytic (bone spurs) stress stimulates sympathetic nerves in the neck leading to sympathetic hyperfunction (a state of stress with increased heart rate, blood pressure, etc.) and can manifest itself in vision problems with eye pain, dry eyes, blurred vision, fatigue, enlarged eye clefts (you cannot close your eyelids completely), and pupil dilation. The vertebral artery supplies blood flow to the brainstem and occipital lobe visual cortex (that part of the brain that processes information into vision), and sympathetic nerve hyperfunction aggravates vertebral artery spasm, resulting in aggravated cerebral ischemia symptoms (symptoms of vertigo, double vision), reduction in blood flow to the visual cortex, and exasperated visual impairment. Parasympathetic symptoms such as lacrimation, ptosis (drooping of upper eyelid), and miosis (constricted pupil dilation) may also follow.”

Cause 2: Reduced blood flow to retina cells.

The authors write: “Briefly, a small number of retinal cells hibernate to survive at an ischemic level subthreshold (a situation of stroke or compressed or reduced blood flow) and thus remain alive. Further, minimal retinal circulation can activate a considerable recovery of vision. It is hypothesized that spinal manipulation (a release on the blood flow) may stimulate a shift in the sympathetic reaction and improve the blood circulation and oxygenation to the hibernated tissue, resulting in reactivation of visual (function).” The authors note published cause histories when restoring the cervical spine to a more natural shape though spinal manipulation could result in repaired vision.

Cause 3: A problem with antigens and the immune response.

The authors write: “Neuropeptide Y (is a chemical that among its functions is to modulate the immune-stress response), vasoactive intestinal peptide (among its functions is to help modulate heart rate and blood pressure), and tyrosine hydroxylase (an enzyme that takes part in the vision pathway) -positive nerve fibers on the dura may be involved in sympathetic activation of the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal system, triggering the atypical symptoms.” In other words, something is creating a chemical imbalance. This theory has some challenges to acceptance.

The idea of nerve compression from cervical spine instability causes blurry vision

Blurred vision, blind spots, water eyes, and difficulty focusing are very common eye complaints that many people are not aware are from cervical instability. The pupil and iris of the eye function as a unit to produce a sharp focus by eliminating or controlling light stimuli. The pupil is the circular colored area of the eye and is responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil, which is the part of the eye that allows light to reach the retina. The iris sphincter muscle (pupillary constrictor) which receives its impulses from the parasympathetic fibers of the third cranial nerve (oculomotor) constricts the pupil; whereas the iris dilator muscle (pupillary dilator) are innervated by sympathetic fibers running from the superior cervical ganglia.

Cervical instability from ligament damage or injury causes eye symptoms and diseases by two main mechanisms: obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and dysautonomia. (Both of these issues will be discussed below). The assault on eye blood flow, pressure, and homeostatic (balance) mechanisms is enough to not only cause various eye symptoms, including palinopsia (tracers, after image, static, or snow vision), oscillopsia (oscillating vision), entopic phenomena (floaters), but also serious eye conditions, including optic hypertension, glaucoma, and macular and retinal degeneration.

Please see my companion articles:

The idea that eye movements, gaze stability, and ocular reflexes are hampered by soft tissue neck injuries is a recognized but somewhat controversial subject

The idea that eye movements, gaze stability, and ocular reflexes are hampered by soft tissue neck injuries is a recognized but somewhat controversial subject. Controversial in that diagnosis and treatments do not have a standardization. This is pointed out in numerous studies. Here is a brief list:

In 2016 Dutch researchers wrote in the BioMed Central musculoskeletal disorders (2) “Overall the reviewed (previously published research) studies show deficits in eye movement in patients with whiplash associated disorder, but studies and results are varied. When comparing the results of the 14 relevant publications, one should realize that there are significant differences in test set-up and patient population. In the majority of studies patients show altered compensatory eye movements and smooth pursuit movements which may impair the coordination of head and eyes.”

A 2020 case history presented in the medical journal Cureus (3), citing this research in support of treatment suggestions, described the case of a 22-year-old woman who was in a high-speed car accident.

But is it really the neck causing vision problems? The research and controversy surrounding neck pain and vision problems.

A March 2022 paper in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (4) examined forty-three patients with neck pain who were referred by orthopaedic outpatient clinics where they were required to fill out 16-item proformas of visual complaints. The aim of the study was to analyze the classification accuracy of visual symptom intensity and frequency based on smooth pursuit neck torsion test results. (Smooth pursuit neck torsion tests look for relationships between neck movement and eye function. They are frequently used in whiplash cases, neck injuries, and cases of suspected cervical spine instability).

The researchers write: “The cervical spine has undergone scientific scrutiny for many years. From university professors to highly skilled clinicians, many attempts have been made to concur about interconnected signs and symptoms, but the overall understanding remains based on the assumption that “In the cervical spine, everything is possible.” Many unfortunate people, therefore, suffer from a variety of different symptoms attributed to neck pain disorders. While some relationship exists between functional signs and symptoms, such as in cervicogenic headaches, radiculopathy, and dizziness, visual disturbances remain poorly understood.”

While there are many controversies surrounding vision and neck movement, the researchers here state: “Our study confirmed the relationship between cervical driven oculomotor deficits measured during the Smooth pursuit neck torsion tests (SPNT) and some of the commonly reported visual complaints in patients with neck pain disorders. The intensity of visual symptoms should be considered in clinical practice as it might show a more pronounced relationship to oculomotor control deficits measured during neck torsion positions. Although some relationship was found between visual complaints and oculomotor deficits related to the cervical spine, other potential causes not investigated in our study should be considered.”

There is great confusion about the role of cervical spine instability and vision problems. This is demonstrated in the emails we get from people who are not sure if there is a connection. Here is one such email. It has been edited for clarity:

“Many years ago, I was diagnosed with cervical spinal stenosis and a bulging cervical disc. I ended up getting a cervical spine epidural and having physical therapy and I was able to avoid surgery. My neck has never been great, but does not appear to be my main issue today (unless it’s connected). My main issue is with my vision. For the past couple of years, I have had issues with blurred vision that seem to subside when I lay down and close my eyes for 20-30 min. This happens daily and has increased in frequency to where it is almost constant. I work on a computer all day and at times, can’t even read the screen (blurred vision). This has impacted things like driving and being a spectator at sports.

I have seen a neurologist, cardiologist, and ophthalmologist – all say I’m okay. I can’t help but wonder if the issue is tied to my spine. I feel a lot of tension in my neck and lower rear part of my head as well. I came across your practice on the internet and I thought I’d reach out to see if you had any ideas as to what could be causing this and if there’s a solution out there.”

What does this image show? The superior cervical sympathetic ganglion

This is the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion (in simple terms a nerve relay station that forwards neural messages) in its native habitat. Surrounded by blood vessels (internal carotid artery and internal jugular vein) and nerve networks and near the C2 vertebrae. When a condition of cervical instability exists, the vertebrae wander out of position, taking with them and stretching the area’s veins, arteries, nerves, and nerve bundles. This causes internal compression or cervical stenosis and reduced and distorted nerve messaging (in the case of this article – vision problems).

The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) is the largest of the cervical ganglia and as we see in the image, is located opposite the second and third cervical vertebrae. It lies in front of the transverse processes of C2 and C3 and the longus capitus muscle and behind the carotid sheath. The branches of the superior cervical ganglion connect with the upper four cervical nerves, the nodose ganglion of the vagus nerve, petrous ganglion of the glossopharyngeal nerve, jugular ganglion of the vagus nerve, hypoglossal nerve, internal carotid nerve, and the left and right superior cardiac nerves. As you can see from all these connections, the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion is the primary messaging relay center.

There are additional communications with the vagus nerve through communicating branches that go to external laryngeal and vagus nerves via the pharyngeal plexus and one that goes directly to the glossopharyngeal nerve. As a side note, the middle cervical ganglion has branches that go to C4-and 5 spinal nerves and the stellate ganglion communicates with spinal nerves C6-T3.

The wandering vertebra and the pull of these vertebras on the nerve, ganglia, and blood vessels that attach to them. Ligament and joint instability and nerve impulse disruption

An introduction to nerve stretching and compression. This would impact the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion. If the vertebrae are wandering, so would the nerves and the ganglia relay stations. It is important to remember that the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) is very close to the anterior surface of the C2-C3 vertebra. Cervical instability can pull and tug on the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion and affect it directly. On ultrasound, the cervical sympathetic ganglion can be 1mm from the bone. So when a person has cervical instability, most probably, the C2-C3 vertebrae will lay right on the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion and cause compression.

Overall the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) innervation is much more important to overall eye health and diseases as it controls eye circulation and thus intraocular pressure. Stimulation of the SCG causes the pupil to dilate and thus allows more light to strike the retina. Changes in pupil size modulate not only retinal illumination but also depth of focus, optical aberrations, and diffraction. As pupil diameter decreases, depth of focus increases and the image-degrading effects of optical aberrations decrease butt the image-degrading effects of diffraction increase. 

As noted then, the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) is not a lone wolf. It relies on the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves to send blood pressure in the carotid sinus and aorta arch, respectively to control blood pressure and pulse, not just so the eye structures can have appropriate circulation but the brain. So what happens to the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) affects the vagus nerve (and other nerves) and vice versa. The nerves are the regulators of vascular tone. For eye structures including the retina, and optic nerve this is the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) is the nerve relay station.

This article deals in part with the wandering vertebra and the pull of these vertebras on the nerves, ganglia, and blood vessels that attach to them. This pull or stretching can cause many of the symptoms we see in our patients including vision problems. In August of 2021, neurosurgeons in Turkey reported in the journal Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy (5) of the variations (or wandering) of the cervical sympathetic ganglia according to vertebral levels on preoperative neck magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by designating carotid artery (CA) as the standard landmark at the center. They did this as a means to assist surgeons from injuring the cervical sympathetic ganglia in the anterior-anterolateral approaches performed in the cervical spinal region.

Here is what the surgeons noted after examination of cervical spine MRIs:

The study concludes: “This study sheds light on high-risk zones in the surgical site and could guide surgeons to better understand the location of cervical sympathetic ganglia before surgical planning.”

What is displayed in this image?

The pupillary dilator acts to increase the size of the pupil to allow more light to enter the eye, as when driving at dusk or at night. Thus, any lesion affecting the superior cervical ganglia may make it harder to focus one’s eyes in a dark room.

Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion and pupillary dilation. The Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion innervates the pupillary dilator muscle which dilates the pupil. When Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion activity is too great or disturbed this constant pupillary dilation can cause photophobia (sensitivity to light not actually a phobia or fear of it) and ultimately increased intraocular pressure since the Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion sits right in front of the C2 – C3 joint. When C2 – C3 instability is present, it is a likely structural cause of vision problems.

Another way upper cervical instability affects vision is through the optic nerve. When upper cervical instability causes interruptions/blockages of any flow into or out of the brain, as can occur with craniomedullar compression syndrome (vertebral artery compression), swelling can occur in the optic nerve causing a condition called papilledema. Vision changes such as blurred vision, double vision, constriction of the visual field (enlarging of the blind spot), decreased color perception or flickering of vision (lasting seconds) are common visual complaints with papilledema. Resolution of the upper cervical instability affects thus would restore normal hemodynamics in the cranium and thus the vision would return to normal. Having said this, when patients come with significant visual complaints and have not yet seen an ophthalmologist, we refer them to one. You always want to make sure that some internal eye condition does not exist, as some of these (like retina injuries) can be emergencies.

In this video:
Vision problems from vagus nerve injury and cervical instability

Ross Hauser, MD discusses vision problems from vagus nerve injury and how these can be caused by cervical instability and resolved with Prolotherapy and curve correction. Below the video is a summary of the video with explanatory notes to help further explain some of the concepts that Dr. Hauser is putting forth in explaining vision problems as they relate to neck pain.

Summary learning points

At 2:00 Minutes of the video, Dr. Hauser refers to this slide: The details of what this slide says is below:

In this image, vision problems caused by cervical spine instability is connected to Diminished ocular blood flow, Exaggerated pupillary hippus dilating, Hampered accommodation or human ocular accommodation mechanism or accommodation reflex, Increased intra-ocular pressure or elevated intraocular pressure, Limited pupillary constriction, Optic nerve damage

What is being described in the above image?

In this image, vision problems caused by cervical spine instability are connected to Diminished ocular blood flow, Exaggerated pupillary hippus dilating, Hampered accommodation or human ocular accommodation mechanism or accommodation reflex, Increased intraocular pressure, or elevated intraocular pressure, Limited pupillary constriction, Optic nerve damage. Here are brief explanatory notes:

A swollen optic nerve – “Patients with abnormal visual function most likely have demyelinating optic neuritis”

We see in some patients, with vision problems that relate to a problem of cervical spine instability, a swollen optic nerve. A paper in the journal Practical Neurology (6) describes problems of a swollen optical nerve in this way:

“Patients with abnormal visual function most likely have demyelinating optic neuritis (swelling of the nerve sheath and optic nerve) or non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (loss of blood flow to the optic nerve). . . “

These are characteristic symptoms of compression or entrapment of the nerves and arteries in the cervical spine.

What does this image suggest?

In this ultrasound image, the swelling of the optic nerve is clear compared to a normal optic nerve. A common but not as commonly diagnosed cause of swollen optic nerve and problems of vision is increased intracranial pressure from cervical spine instability.

In this ultrasound image, the swelling of the optic nerve is clear compared to a normal optic nerve. A common but not as commonly diagnosed cause of swollen optic nerve and problems of vision is increased intracranial pressure from cervical spine instability.

Non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy

A December 2020 study (7)  in the International Journal of Ophthalmology evaluated whether the narrowing of the internal carotid artery siphon (a branch of the carotid artery) may increase the risk of developing non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION). This is as mentioned above a problem of loss of blood flow to the optic nerve.

What this study concluded was that a narrowing of the internal carotid artery siphon may increase the risk of developing non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy NAION. In essence, something is causing loss of blood flow to the optic nerve, it is a non-descript cause, but it is not vascular inflammation and it is causing vision problems. At our center, this cause is often identified as cervical spine instability. One tool that we use to assess problems, especially swelling, of the optic nerve is to take the nerve’s measurements to check for swelling via ultrasound. The test is illustrated below:

What are we seeing in this image?

In this photograph, an optic nerve measurement is taken via ultrasound.  We are looking for swelling of the optic nerve that may explain vision problems by way of demyelinating optic neuritis (swelling of the nerve sheath and optic nerve) or non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (loss of blood flow to the optic nerve). Characteristic symptoms of compression or entrapment of the nerves and arteries in the cervical spine.

In this photograph, an optic nerve measurement is taken via ultrasound.  We are looking for swelling of the optic nerve that may explain vision problems by way of demyelinating optic neuritis (swelling of the nerve sheath and optic nerve) or non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (loss of blood flow to the optic nerve). Characteristic symptoms of compression or entrapment of the nerves and arteries in the cervical spine.

The superior cervical ganglion’s influence on eye circulation and optic nerve is enormous.  Sympathetic nerves innervating the orbital structures come from the superior cervical ganglion and are conducted cranially in the internal carotid nerve. The autonomic nerves from the internal carotid plexus are transmitted to the orbit with the ophthalmic artery.

An increase in optic nerve sheath diameter can be due to increased intracranial pressure.  Increased intracranial pressure causes the optic nerve to swell.

What does this image suggest? In this ultrasound image, the swelling of the optic nerve is clear compared to a normal optic nerve. A common but not as commonly diagnosed cause of swollen optic nerve and problems of vision is increased intracranial pressure from cervical spine instability.

In this ultrasound image, the swelling of the optic nerve is clear compared to a normal optic nerve. A common but not as commonly diagnosed cause of swollen optic nerve and problems of vision is increased intracranial pressure from cervical spine instability.

 

The traditional treatments of spinal fluid shunts and optic nerve sheath fenestration (operation to reduce swelling on optic nerve) never explain why the cerebrospinal pressure is high.

The optic nerves, as well as the other cranial nerves and spinal nerve roots, are surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space. As intracranial pressure rises from increased cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, the cerebrospinal fluid looks for a path of least resistance, one of which surrounds the optic nerve and can be evaluated by optic nerve sheath diameter measurements. It is the pressure on the optic nerve that accounts for some of the vision changes that are seen with cervical spine instability.

Historically, the optic nerve and its sheath diameter were noninvasively assessed by MRI and ophthalmoscopy but transorbital ultrasound has recently emerged as a promising assessment tool.

In the image below, the caption reads: A comparison of an enlarged optic nerve sheath diameter measurement from orbital ultrasound compared to one that is normal.

Optic nerve sheath diameter measurement is one non-invasive way to diagnose intracranial pressure hypertension (increased brain pressure).

What are we seeing in this image?

Here we are looking at a transverse view of the neck at the level of C2, showing the effect of malrotation of C2 on the C2 nerve root, compression of the carotid sheath as well as the superior cervical ganglion on the right side. Malrotation can affect the signaling of important nerves which impair the function of numerous systems. Many people with blurred vision also suffer from dizziness, headaches, swallowing difficulties, brain fog, and ringing in the ears, among other symptoms.

Can a herniated disc in the neck or whiplash cause blurred vision?

Many people contact us via email with their medical concerns. Here are some generalized examples of a person diagnosed with a herniated disc and a vision problem.

I have been having problems getting my eyes to focus. I went to the eye doctor, I got an exam and I was told my eyes were okay.

I have had neck problems for a long time. I have degenerative arthritis and it is not getting better. I have been having problems getting my eyes to focus. I went to the eye doctor, I got an exam and I was told my eyes were okay. The eye doctor suggested I should go to a cardiologist and make sure I do not have a blockage in my neck arteries. I have noticed that as my neck pain progresses I get more frequent headaches and pain radiates into my jaw. When I told my eye doctor about the jaw pain that is when he suggested the cardiologist. 

After I went to the cardiologist

After the cardiologist, I seem to be okay heart and circulation-wise. I have been treated by a chiropractor for a herniated disc at C5-C6. He is also treating me for cervical lordosis. He has been telling me that my vision problems are related to my neck issues and that I should consider some type of injections or eventually a fusion surgery. I need to consider something because the blurry vision, especially in my one eye, is worse.

“Characteristics of visual disturbances reported by subjects with neck pain”

People, perhaps like yourself with visual disturbance will usually report on many problems that this condition is causing them. It is usually not limited to one aspect of vision.

In their 2014 paper: “Characteristics of visual disturbances reported by subjects with neck pain,” Researchers at The University of Queensland wrote in the journal Manual Therapy (8) of the most difficult to treat and manage visual disturbances in their patients with neck pain.

Let’s do some simple definitions before we proceed.

While these are very simple definitions, they get the point across that the vestibular system is a complex, delicate balancing system that stabilizes vision. More simply, it “keeps your eye steady.”

One more definition:

The SCG innervates the eye and lacrimal gland and causes vasoconstriction of the iris and sclera, pupillary dilation, widening of the palpebral fissure, and the reduced production of tears. When the SCG is damaged Horner’s syndrome results which causes drooping of the eyelids (ptosis), constriction of the pupil (miosis), and apparent sinking of the eyeball.

“Altered cervical joint position and movement sense, static and dynamic balance, and ocular mobility (eye muscle movement) and coordination should become an essential part of the routine assessment of those with traumatic neck pain”

Dr. Julia Treleaven, Ph.D., is a member of the Neck Pain and Whiplash Research Group, Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia. She has also written numerous papers on the problems of impaired function in the cervical neck. The paper cited at the top of this article is one that she co-authored.

In the July 2017 edition of The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy (9), she wrote:

There is considerable evidence to support the importance of cervical afferent dysfunction in the development of dizziness, unsteadiness, visual disturbances, altered balance, and altered eye and head movement control following neck trauma, especially in those with persistent symptoms.

However, there are other possible causes for these symptoms, and secondary adaptive changes should also be considered in the differential diagnosis.

Understanding the nature of these symptoms and differential diagnoses of their potential origin is important for rehabilitation. In addition to symptoms, the evaluation of potential impairments (altered cervical joint position and movement sense, static and dynamic balance, and ocular mobility (eye muscle movement) and coordination) should become an essential part of the routine assessment of those with traumatic neck pain, including those with concomitant injuries such as concussion and vestibular or visual pathology or deficits.

Smooth pursuit eye-movement abnormalities

Smooth pursuit eye-movement abnormalities are as they are described. Your eyes follow the movements of objects, and they should do so smoothly. An August 2020 paper presented by Stanford University researchers (10) described the case of a 22-year-old woman who suffered a whiplash injury. Here are the learning points of this case:

Whiplash injuries may disrupt normal cervical afferent and efferent projections. (As we discussed above, the blockage or dysfunction of nerve messages or blood flow in the neck.)  Oculomotor abnormalities have been reported in chronic whiplash cases, but there is limited knowledge of their presence in acute whiplash and how acute assessment may target early intervention.

(The doctors of the study) presented a literature review and case study of a 22-year-old female with an acute concussion and whiplash caused by a high-speed motor vehicle collision.

The more the patient moved her head, the more eye-movement abnormalities were observed

The patient was sent to physical therapy

After completing physical therapy

Manual therapy can help in acute situations

The doctors of this case history acknowledged that visual disturbance is a problem in acute whiplash situations and chronic whiplash situations, as we have seen in chronic cervical spine instability.

The conclusion of this case offered the doctors a chance to suggest: “This case highlights the need for ocular-motor impairment assessment following acute whiplash, specifically during cervical rotation. Early intervention should focus on cervical manual therapy and may be important in supporting altered cervical afferents causing oculomotor dysfunctions following acute whiplash.”

In other words, look for a problem when the patient is turning his or her head. This is a sign that something in the cervical spine is causing vision problems. Fix the neck, fix the vision problems.

Altered cervical joint position. Can a herniated disc in the neck cause blurred vision?

In our offices, we see patients following acute head or neck trauma, such as concussion, whiplash, and sports injury who suffer from these various problems including double vision and other vision problems. But as pointed out in this article, we also see patients with the same symptoms who suffer from cervical degenerative disc disease. What both challenges have in common is that the cervical vertebrae are hypermobile and are moving in and out of their natural position.

In this video, Danielle R. Steilen-Matias, MMS, PA-C  describes various challenges patients have with whiplash injury. There are many symptoms associated with whiplash, vision problems may only be one. In regard to vision problems, Danielle describes treatment options, here are the summary points:


Whiplash and cervical ligament damage – can this be the cause of your double, blurry vision?

In a 2019 study, researchers at The University of Queensland published their findings in PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation,(11) that suggests that people with whiplash-associated disorders who have difficulty with quick head movements and cervico-ocular dysfunctions, should be evaluated for changes in coordination between eye movement and neck muscle activity.

It is interesting to note that the research above also suggests that this problem with the neck muscles should be explored because not only is there a connection to vision problems, but, “Contrasting (new) changes are present in deep and superficial neck muscles with implications for neck function that may explain some common WAD symptoms.” If the muscle problem is affecting vision, it is affecting other symptoms as well.

In the journal Physical Therapy, researchers led by the Erasmus University Medical Center in the Netherlands showed the cervico-ocular reflex could be altered in non-traumatic neck pain patients. (12)

Here again, the problems of vision are connected to cervical degenerative disc disease. To show the similarities between the non-traumatic neck pain patients and the traumatic neck pain patients, the researchers noted the same symptoms in patients with Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD).

The researchers offer an explanation for the increased cervico-ocular reflex in people with neck pain as altered afferent information from the cervical spine. (The blockage or dysfunction of nerve messages or blood flow in the neck that we mentioned above).

Quoting the study: “In the cervical spine, the information from muscles is a dominant source of information. Deficits in afferent information are suggested by magnetic resonance imaging studies showing a widespread presence of fatty infiltrates in the neck muscles of patients with chronic whiplash and to a lesser extent in patients with idiopathic neck pain (neck pain that is coming from an undiagnosed source).”

Problems of neck stability and movement are caused by muscle atrophy. Can muscle atrophy cause double, blurry vision?

So the researchers are looking at problems of neck stability and movement caused by muscle atrophy. They also suggest that a reduced range of motion in the neck alters the afferent information from the cervical spine. In our practice, we look also at the problems of cervical ligament instability.

One more problem. The vestibulo-ocular reflex and the cervico-ocular reflex work in conjunction, as the researchers noted:

“the vestibular and cervical systems cooperate in order to maintain a clear visual image during head and eye movements. (These)  findings suggest that the vestibulo-ocular reflex does not compensate for the increased cervico-ocular reflex in the neck pain group.

This mismatch between cervico-ocular reflex and vestibulo-ocular reflex could lead to visual disturbances, dizziness, and postural control disturbances.”

The researchers then speculated a question that they said they would look at in a future study:

Is it possible to use the cervico-ocular reflex as an outcome measure to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in people with neck pain? In other words, does vision improvement mean the treatment is working? A patient who has vision impairment improved my neck pain treatments would certainly think so. That is something we have seen here in our practice.

For more information on problems related to vision problems and the cervico-ocular reflex, please see our article: Oscillopsia Caused by Cervical Spine Instability

Section 2

Blurry vision, light sensitivity, brain fog, increased ocular pressure, and cervical Instability

In this article we will provide summary and explanatory notes for the video below: Blurry vision, light sensitivity, brain fog, increased ocular pressure, and cervical Instability.

People who visit our center have a myriad of symptoms. Symptoms a patient may report on any given visit are migraine headaches, right-sided facial numbness and pain, heart palpitations, memory loss, confusion, bilateral fullness in my eyes, vertigo, tinnitus, impaired gait, hoarseness, severe fatigue, muscle weakness, sinus congestion, dysesthesias of the hands and forearms, TMJ, blurred vision, shoulder pain, right-sided chest pain, swelling and pain on right side of the neck and nausea.

Blurry vision, eye pain, eye pressure, light sensitivity, and other vision problems, along with the symptoms above among the more troubling and disabling symptoms that are often due to cervical spine instability.

Cervical instability causes compression or pinching on the nerves, veins, and arteries that pass through the neck. Cervical nerves innervate the muscles and skin of the arms and hands but also the autonomic nerves that control blood pressure, heart rate, digestion, immune system function, breathing, and energy levels. Furthermore, cervical instability affects the neurons involved in the central relay systems in the brain that are involved with vision, proprioception (balance and 3-D perception), hormone levels, and even concentration, memory, emotions and happiness. In this article summary we will concentrate on the problems of vision.

(0:05 of the video)

Blurry and double vision. A visual of a world in motion.

Besides pain, probably the most distressing symptom that we see here at the Hauser Neck Center is gaze instability. We have two eyes and for vision to work properly, they have to see and process the same image so we can see in three dimensions. So imagine if the image and perception were different in the right eye than the left eye and you have been diagnosed with gaze instability. Your vision is then either blurry or you see two images or you feel that you are moving through space while you are standing still.  Patients will often tell us, “When I get in a car, I am terrible.” They get the feeling of seasickness in a car.

In our article Nystagmus – Oscillopsia caused by cervical spine instability and neck pain, we discuss the problem of a “world in motion,” and other vision problems and how one explanation as to why treatments and therapies have not helped you is because you have unidentified cervical neck/spine instability.

(1:00 of the video)

Many patients are in a progressive, degenerative vision situation. While this feeling of seasickness at first may have been limited to the motion of a moving car, it has now negatively progressed to the point that they feel “seasick” all the time and/or they can’t see clearly. Recently we saw a patient with terrible visual snow or like watching a TV with static.

Someone with gaze instability, has blurry vision, double vision, spots, and unclear visual images, and they go see several ophthalmologists even neural ophthalmologists and they’ll say that the eye is fine, the retina is fine, the lens is fine, there are no loose bodies floating in the eye fluid, yet their vision is blurry.

Blurred vision, blind spots, water eyes, and difficulty focusing.

In many of our articles, we discuss the problems patients have with blurred vision, blind spots, water eyes, and difficulty focusing. We are also able to demonstrate that many of these symptoms are problems caused by cervical neck instability. In the article Chronic Neck Pain and Blurred or Double Vision Problems? We write: “The pupil and iris of the eye function as a unit to produce a sharp focus by eliminating or controlling light stimuli. The pupil is responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil, which is the part of the eye that allows light to reach the retina. The iris sphincter muscle (pupillary constrictor) which receives its impulses from the parasympathetic fibers of the third cranial nerve (oculomotor) constricts the pupil; whereas the iris dilator muscle (pupillary dilator) is innervated by sympathetic fibers running from the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion.”

The Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion (the nerve center that provides innervation to the head and neck) and pupillary dilation. Postganglionic axons (in simplest terms nerve fibers) of the Superior cervical ganglion innervate the eye, lacrimal (tear) gland, and pupillary dilator muscle which dilates the pupil.

When a stimulus (possibly a cervical disc herniation, impingement, or compression) causes superior cervical sympathetic ganglion activity to go hyperactive or disturbed this constant pupillary dilation can cause photophobia (sensitivity to light) and ultimately increase intraocular pressure since the Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion sits right in front of the C2 – C3 joint. When C2 – C3 instability is present, it is a likely structural cause of vision problems.

In the image below the neck-eye reflexes are described.

These reflexes keep the head balanced while a person is watching moving objects or the body or head is in motion.

  • The reflex vestibulo-ocular (VOR) causes eye gaze stabilization during head motion
  • The reflex cervico-ocular (COR) helps the eyes to move in relation to neck rotation, (because of cervical ligament and facet joint proprioceptors – neurons that sense motion.)
  • The reflex vestibulocollic (VCR) helps to stabilize the head in space when the body moves.
  • The reflex cervicalcollic (CCR) muscles tightened to stabilize the head (because of cervical ligament and facet joint proprioceptors – neurons that sense motion.)

Potentially all these reflexes are impaired with ligament cervical instability causing symptoms of vertigo, dizziness, Nystagmus, Oscillopsia, visual disturbance, and poor balance.

neck-eye reflexes

In discussing vision or dizziness related to the cervical spine, several reflexes should be addressed that give balance to the body so we don’t fall over or get symptoms such as dizziness or vertigo when upright or changing positions. Balance is provided by automatic reflexes for stabilization of the visual field (vestibulocochlear reflex, VOR) as well as for erect standing (vestibulospinal reflex, VSR) and head position (vestibulocollic reflex, VCR) so that we can have correct posture.

All of these reflexes are called ocular stabilization reflexes serve to stabilize the visual image on the retina during head movements. These help us have the proper posture so we can balance and see what we are doing without falling over. When the vestibular system is not working properly, even small head movements can be accompanied by gaze instability and postural imbalance results. The vestibular system is crucial in controlling gaze, balance, and posture, and an imbalance can manifest as a dramatic, sudden onset of vertigo. The vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) functions to stabilize gaze and ensure clear vision during everyday activities. Vestibular signals from the inner ear go to the vestibular nuclei in the medulla (brainstem), which connect to the cranial nerves that control eye movements. During head movement, the eye movement is equal and opposite to that of head movement. The vestibulospinal (VSR) reflex stabilizes the head and upright posture in relation to gravity.

The vestibulocollic reflex (VCR) serves to stabilize the head position in space. Muscles of the neck respond to input from the vestibular system to provide reflexive head movement. For example, when the head is rotated in relationship to the neck, the vestibulocollic reflex (VCR) stabilizes the head position thereby stabilizing gaze direction in space. When the head moves, the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) tends to stabilize the image of an object in space on the retina by producing eye movement compensatory to head movement.

Other reflexes also play a role including the cervico-collic and cervico-occular reflexes. The cervico-collic reflex (CCR) allows the neck to stabilize the head in space. It is dependent upon the input of the upper two or three cervical nerves, so the cervico-collic reflex (CCR) is evoked by the activity of neck receptors and occurs when the head rotates in relation to the body. The cervico-occular reflex (COR) refers to those reflexive eye movements driven by neck proprioceptors and elicited by rotation of the neck. The proprioception of muscles and the facet joints of the cervical spine form the receptor part of this reflex. The purpose of the COR is to help us keep the visual image on the retina during self-motion of the neck.

(2:15 of the video)

They have had many tests on the eyeball and problems with the eyeball itself have been ruled out.

For many people, the eye itself is not the problem. They have had many tests on the eyeball and problems with the eyeball itself have been ruled out. The problem is the electric activity that connects what the eye sees with what the brain comprehends. The cable or connectivity between the eye and the brain has been disrupted. For example, during the hurricane, the power went out. A person’s TV did not work. That does not mean the TV was broken, it meant that the connection to the electric power was broken.

(3:05 of the video)

The optic nerve

The nerve that takes the image from the retina to the brain is called the optic nerve. You don’t see the image until the electrical current from the eye to the brain via the optical nerve gets interpreted by the brain and then then you actually see the image. For a clear, steady image, the impulses from the right optic nerve and the left optic nerve have to be the same.

In the image below the caption reads:

Seeing multiple images at a time after the stimulus has been removed is palinopsia it seems quite common with upper cervical instability-induced intracranial hypertension caused by the increased fluid or pressure around the nerve making nerve impulses coming from the right eye reach the brain at a different time than those coming from the left eye.

Seeing multiple images at a time after the stimulus has been removed is palinopsia

(3:25 of the video)

Blockage of the jugular vein

Recently we saw a patient whose MRI demonstrated that she was having a blockage of the jugular vein on her left side. Testing demonstrated further that the fluid created by this blockage around her left eye optical nerve was greater than her right. The fluid and pressure on the left side would generally cause the image on the left side to be perceived slower. This would cause double vision and blurry vision. It was not the eye causing the problem, it was fluid around the optical nerve.

(4:15 of the video)

Increased superior cervical sympathetic ganglion activity causes dilation of the pupils

The graph below demonstrates ligamentous (ligament) cervical instability and its potential to cause long-term consequences to the eye. Increased superior cervical sympathetic ganglion activity causes dilation of the pupils which can potentially elevate intraocular pressure and cause eye diseases and symptoms.

Measurement of pupillary constriction to light with pupillometer

This graph explains that there are other factors involved beyond the eye nerve. The superior cervical sympathetic ganglion causes your eye to dilate. A lot of our patients have light sensitivity, so we do a pupilometer. A pupilometer shows that many of our patients have pupil dilations which causes them symptoms of light sensitivity. Further, constant dilation of the pupils increases intraocular pressure.

The graph below demonstrates ligamentous (ligament) cervical instability impact on vision.

The superior cervical sympathetic ganglion and the C2 vertebrae

(5:00 of the video) The superior cervical sympathetic ganglion sits near the C2 vertebrae. If there is upper cervical instability, the abnormal motion of the C2 can irritate the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion.

Many patients have gone first to an optometrist and part of the normal testing process is pupil dilation with eye drops. When they leave the optometrist following the tests, people need to wear sunglasses or hats that reduce the amount of sunlight they see. When the medication wears off, the pupils should return to normal. For some people because of superior cervical sympathetic ganglion irritation, caused by neck instability and unnatural movement of the C2, their pupils are always dilated, their normal is the need to wear sunglasses and photophobia

Cerebral spinal fluid blockage and intracranial pressure buildup

(6:00 of the video) There could be fluid buildup around the eyes so we’re going to talk mainly about jugular vein compression causing the fluid to build but other causes such as cerebral spinal fluid blockage.

In this image, on the left, the spinal cord is surrounded by a complete ring of cerebral spinal fluid. On the right side, the two arrows show where the ring of spinal fluid has dried up. Anyone who has taken cervical spine MRIs and has an image of these scans can see if you have his type of blockage yourself. Sometimes this situation can be simply corrected by fixing the cervical neck curve.

(6:50 of the video) The most common cause of fluid going around the eye nerve is going to be jugular vein compression. How does jugular vein compression cause this fluid buildup in the eyes?

(7:00 of the video) In the front of the neck are the jugular veins, one on each side. If these veins are compressed think, like a kink in a hose, the fluid builds up in the brain. Due to the pressure buildup, the fluids then seep out and overflow into the optic area and surround the optic nerve. This is how visual snow, distorted vision, after images, after images are looking at an object, looking away, but the image of the object remains.

(8:40 of the video) Discussion of compression and stretching of the jugular vein.

In this image: An MRI of the brain and brain stem shows bilateral posterior eyes squish (the white arrows at the back of the eyeballs). The patient’s increased intracranial pressure from venous obstruction caused by her cervical neck changes and instability. This increased pressure causes the back of her eyeballs to be squished and flattened.

(10:00 of the video) A discussion of backed-up brain fluid, increased pressure, and how this pressure can cause high eye pressure. A common symptom of eye problems and cervical spine instability would be would be brain fog and cognitive dysfunction. More obvious problems would be neck pain, muscle tightness, headaches, dizziness, cracking, and popping of the neck.

(12:20 of the video)

A case history is discussed. Described in the image below: This person’s optical nerve sheath diameter is almost twice the normal size signifying fluid backing up around the optic nerve. This person had many of the signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension (high brain pressure) including visual disturbances, head pressure, eye pain, brain fog, inability to focus, and photophobia.

(14:30 of the video) Neck exercises, traction, and other means to correct cervical instability problems.

In our article Dynamic Structural Medicine Ross Hauser MD Review of Treatments for Cervical Spine Instability, Ross Hauser MD, reviews the following:

  • Cervical curve correction uses traction and patient-specific weights in a standing or weight-bearing position to help restore the natural cervical spine curve. Under x-ray guidance, specific chest and/or head weights are used to determine the best method of cervical curve correction. Other therapeutic components of the curve correction program include specific chiropractic adjustments, a Denneroll (chiropractic neck wedge), specific exercises, and of course, proper ergonomics while working. Cervical curve correction therapies optimize curvature and positioning, thereby helping to stabilize the spine. Because there is a significant correlation between increasing forward head posture and increasing neck pain and disability, treatment is imperative.

Cervical curve correction therapies optimize curvature and positioning, thereby helping to stabilize the spine.

Results of treatment vary. Not all patients achieve similar results.

A lot of research shows that one of the most important parts of performing cervical traction is maintaining the cervical lordosis during performing traction. This is something to consider, Performing traction may not always be the best therapy for patients, and if they do have a lot of instability you would want to be careful with doing a lot of traction because you don’t want to expose too much motion to an area that’s already moving too much.

Our treatments for cervical instability and related challenges of vision
Regenerative Medicine Injections | Caring Cervical Realignment Therapy

Part of our treatment program is a focus on cervical spine ligaments. The ligaments are the strong connective tissue that holds the vertebrae in place. When you have a slipped disc, a pinched nerve, a herniated disc, or a nerve, the underlying problem is that the vertebrae are compressing these structures and causing pain and possible neurologic-type symptoms. When the cervical spine instability is great enough or even focused enough on a certain neck segment, it can also cause compression on the arteries and veins that travel through and around the cervical vertebrae.

Prolotherapy is an injection technique that stimulates the repair of unstable, torn, or damaged ligaments. In 2014, we published a comprehensive review of the problems related to weakened damaged cervical neck ligaments in The Open Orthopaedics Journal. (13) We are honored that this research has been used in at least 6 other medical research papers by different authors exploring our treatments and findings and cited, according to Google Scholar, in more than 40 articles. In this research, we suggested that:

  • In the upper cervical spine (C0-C2), this can cause symptoms such as nerve and tendon irritation and vertebrobasilar insufficiency with associated vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness, facial pain, arm pain, migraine headaches, and vision problems.

Treating and stabilizing the cervical ligaments can alleviate vision problems by preventing excessive abnormal vertebrae movement, the development or advancement of cervical osteoarthritis, and the myriad of problematic symptoms they cause.

An introduction to the treatment is best observed in the video below. A patient with cervical neck instability is treated with Prolotherapy using a Digital Motion X-ray machine.

Actual Prolotherapy treatment

This video jumps to 1:05 where the actual treatment begins.

This patient is having C1-C2 areas treated. Ross Hauser, MD, is giving the injections.

In 2015, our research team published our findings in our paper “The biology of prolotherapy and its application in clinical cervical spine instability and chronic neck pain: a retrospective study.” This peer-reviewed research was published in the European Journal of Preventive Medicine. (14)

Here we wrote:In an effort to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of clinical cervical spine instability and chronic neck pain, we investigated the role of proliferative injection Prolotherapy in the reduction of pain and recovery of constitutional and neurological symptoms associated with increased intervertebral motion, structural deformity and irritation of nerve roots. . . 95 percent of patients reported that Prolotherapy met their expectations in regards to pain relief and functionality.”

An individualized cervical spine instability and vision problem treatment protocol may include the following:

  • A certain number of Prolotherapy visits to resolve the instability.
  • Chiropractic consultation and treatment
  • An initial period of cervical immobilization with a cervical collar in order to limit neck forces while the ligaments regenerate.
  • A program is initiated to help restore the correct and proper cervical spine curve.
    • Our goal is to provide long-term solutions. Through extensive research and patient data analysis, it became clear that in order for patients to obtain long-term cures (approximately 90% relief of symptoms) the re-establishment of some lordosis, (the natural cervical spinal curve) in their cervical spine is necessary. Once spinal stabilization was achieved with Prolotherapy and the normalization of cervical forces by restoring some lordosis, lasting relief of symptoms was highly probable. As with any medical technique, the treatment will not work for everyone. We provide a detailed prescreening process to help assess the ideal candidates for treatment.

A case history using PRP injections with Prolotherapy to alleviate symptoms related to cervical spine instability and vision problems

A case history is a description of one person’s medical journey, treatment, and alleviation of symptoms. The results achieved may not be typical.

  • PRP treatment takes your blood, like going for a blood test, and re-introduces the concentrated blood platelets from your blood into areas of chronic joint and spine deterioration.
  • Your blood platelets contain growth and healing factors. When concentrated through simple centrifuging, your blood plasma becomes “rich” in healing factors, thus the name Platelet RICH plasma. Platelets play a central role in blood clotting and wound/injury healing.

A patient came to Caring Medical after visiting multiple specialists without any explanation as to why his vision was blurry and he could not focus on objects. He originally saw various eye specialists who ran a vast series of tests, which were all negative. He then saw Neurologist and ENT doctor and was prescribed various medications including antibiotics, B12 shots, and steroids. These treatments did not help his vision problems.

MRI with and without contrast of the head, and neck, and MR angiogram of the neck with and without contrast all were negative. He eventually saw a chiropractor and was told he had neck instability. The major cause? The patient was a chronic self-manipulator of his neck. He had cracked his neck over a thousand times.

On initial history at our neck center, he specifically complained of blurred vision (worse at night), double vision, feeling off-balance, constant crepitus with neck movement, tinnitus mostly in the left ear, feeling of fullness in both ears, left posterior shoulder pain, and trouble sleeping.

His symptoms seemed to be worse when rotating his head left or right.  He was unable to drive at night and was unable to play golf. He had a constant 4/10 throbbing headache posterior or towards the rear of his upper neck.

A digital motion x-ray at our facility revealed multiple areas of cervical instability including significant anterolisthesis of C2-C3, C4-C5, and C5-C6, as well as gapping of facet joints bilaterally at C4-C5 and C5-C6, encroachment of the facet joint at C3-C4 and C4-C5 on the left with flexion and extension, as well evidence of overhang on lateral flexion of C1-C2.

The patient received Comprehensive Dextrose Prolotherapy for his whole neck, but PRP was used as the solution injected into the upper neck. At his second visit, 5 weeks later he stated overall his symptoms were 40% better and he was now able to drive at night.  After his second visit, his symptoms were 70% improved and his balance was so much better than he was back to playing golf.

The third treatment was decided to be the last treatment the patient would receive. He was 85% improved overall. He said his vision was back to normal and his ear fullness was gone. He had slight tinnitus and neck stiffness. Overall, his neck motion was much improved. He did not have floaty or imbalanced feelings anymore. His headaches were now minimal. Six months since his last visit on follow up he states he continues to improve.

Summary and contact us. Can we help you? How do I know if I’m a good candidate?

We hope you found this article informative and that it helped answer many of the questions you may have surrounding vision problems, craniocervical instability, upper cervical spine instability, cervical spine instability, or simply problems related to neck pain. Just like you, we want to make sure you are a good fit for our clinic prior to accepting your case. While our mission is to help as many people with chronic pain as we can, sadly, we cannot accept all cases. We have a multi-step process so our team can really get to know you and your case to ensure that it sounds like you are a good fit for the unique testing and treatments that we offer here.

Please visit the Hauser Neck Center Patient Candidate Form

Related articles:

Visual snow syndrome and neck instability

References for this article:

1 Leung KK, Chu EC, Chin WL, Mok ST, San Chin EW. Cervicogenic visual dysfunction: an understanding of its pathomechanism. Medicine and Pharmacy Reports. 2023 Jan;96(1):16. [Google Scholar]
2 Ischebeck BK, de Vries J, Van der Geest JN, Janssen M, Van Wingerden JP, Kleinrensink GJ, Frens MA. Eye movements in patients with Whiplash Associated Disorders: a systematic review. BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2016 Dec;17(1):1-1. [Google Scholar]
3 Boo M, Matheson G, Lumba-Brown A. Smooth Pursuit Eye-Movement Abnormalities Associated With Cervical Spine Whiplash: A Scientific Review and Case Report. Cureus. 2020 Aug 19;12(8). [Google Scholar]
4 Majcen Rosker Z, Vodicar M, Kristjansson E. Is Altered Oculomotor Control during Smooth Pursuit Neck Torsion Test Related to Subjective Visual Complaints in Patients with Neck Pain Disorders?. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022 Mar 23;19(7):3788. [Google Scholar]
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6 Margolin E. The swollen optic nerve: an approach to diagnosis and management. Pract Neurol. 2019;19(4):302-309. doi:10.1136/practneurol-2018-002057 [Google Scholar]
7 Fu ZY, Li HY, Wang YL. Imageology of internal carotid artery siphon in non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy. International Journal of Ophthalmology. 2020;13(12):1941. [Google Scholar]
8 Treleaven J, Takasaki H. Characteristics of visual disturbances reported by subjects with neck pain. Manual Therapy. 2014 Jun 1;19(3):203-7. [Google Scholar]
9 Treleaven J. Dizziness, Unsteadiness, Visual Disturbances, and Sensorimotor Control in Traumatic Neck Pain. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2017 Jun 16(0):1-25. [Google Scholar]
10 Boo M, Matheson G, Lumba-Brown A. Smooth Pursuit Eye-Movement Abnormalities Associated With Cervical Spine Whiplash: A Scientific Review and Case Report. Cureus. 2020 Aug;12(8). [Google Scholar]
11 Bexander CS, Hodges PW. Cervical rotator muscle activity with eye movement at different speeds is distorted in whiplash. PM&R. 2019 Jan. [Google Scholar]
12 de Vries J, Ischebeck BK, Voogt LP, Janssen M, Frens MA, Kleinrensink GJ, van der Geest JN. Cervico-ocular reflex is increased in people with nonspecific neck pain. Physical Therapy. 2016 Aug 1;96(8):1190-5. [Google Scholar]
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This article was updated September 28, 2023

 

 

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