Chronic Neck Pain and Blurred or Double Vision Problems

Ross A. Hauser, MD. Brian R Hutcheson, DC., Danielle R. Steilen-Matias, MMS, PA-C

Chronic Neck Pain and Blurred or Double Vision Problems – Is the answer in the neck ligaments?

If you are reading or listening to this article, it is likely that you already know the answer to the question posed, Can a herniated disc in the neck or whiplash cause vision problems? The answer is yes. The next challenge, can it be treated? If you are exploring this article you have probably had treatments with less than hoped-for results. The main reason for your lack of success is that your doctors may have focused solely on the blurry vision and not explored the possibility of a greater problem of the soft tissue damage in your neck causing the blurred, double vision.

Cervical neck instability causes a myriad of symptoms such as pain, dizziness, tinnitus, vertigo, sinusitis, swallowing difficulty, and others. In this article, our focus will be on vision problems. While vision problems are the focus, it is important to understand that anyone who suffered from a traumatic injury, such as whiplash in a car accident or sports injury, or someone suffering from degenerative problems of the neck, blurred, double vision is only one component of symptoms. Fixing the problems of blurred vision will be difficult to treat when symptoms of cervical neck instability are not treated. We will provide treatment options below. Common eye complaints that occur with patients who suffered neck injuries, including whiplash, include blurry vision, diplopia, inability to focus clearly, eye pain, photophobia, palinopsia, visual distortions, and a feeling of “wooziness” (like being on a boat)

Problems of blurred or double vision can be caused by many problems. This article will focus on the cause of neck instability causing pressure on the nerves, arteries, and veins that run through the cervical spine and into the skull.

We are going to start with an introductory video by Ross Hauser, MD. Below the video is a summary of the video with explanatory notes to help further and explain some of the concepts that Dr. Hauser is putting forth in explaining vision problems as they relate to neck pain.

Introduction

The idea of nerve compression from cervical spine instability causing blurry vision

Blurred vision, blind spots, water eyes, and difficultly focusing are very common eye complaints that many people are not aware are from cervical instability. The pupil and iris of the eye function as a unit to produce a sharp focus by eliminating or controlling light stimuli. The pupil is the circular colored area of the eye and is responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil, which is the part of the eye that allows light to reach the retina. The iris sphincter muscle (pupillary constrictor) which receives its impulses from the parasympathetic fibers of the third cranial nerve (oculomotor) constricts the pupil; whereas the iris dilator muscle (pupillary dilator) are innervated by sympathetic fibers running from the superior cervical ganglia.

Cervical instability from ligament damage or injury causes eye symptoms and diseases by two main mechanisms: obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and dysautonomia. (Both of these issues will be discussed below). The assault on eye blood flow, pressure, and homeostatic (balance) mechanisms is enough to not only cause various eye symptoms, including palinopsia (tracers, after image, static, or snow vision), oscillopsia (oscillating vision), entopic phenomena (floaters), but also serious eye conditions, including optic hypertension, glaucoma, and macular and retinal degeneration.

Please see my companion articles:

The idea that eye movements, gaze stability, and ocular reflexes are hampered by soft tissue neck injuries is a recognized but somewhat controversial subject. Controversial in that diagnosis and treatments do not have a standardization. This is pointed out in numerous studies. Here are a brief list:

In 2016 Dutch researchers wrote in the BioMed Central musculoskeletal disorders (10) “Overall the reviewed (previously published research) studies show deficits in eye movement in patients with whiplash associated disorder, but studies and results are varied. When comparing the results of the 14 relevant publications, one should realize that there are significant differences in test set-up and patient population. In the majority of studies patients show altered compensatory eye movements and smooth pursuit movements which may impair the coordination of head and eyes.”

A 2020 case history presented in the medical journal Cureus (11), citing this research in support of treatment suggestions, described the case of a 22 year old woman who was in a high speed car accident.

What does this image show?

This is the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion in its native habitat. Surrounded by blood vessels (internal carotid artery and internal jugular vein) and nerve networks and near the C2 vertebrae. When a condition of cervical instability exists, the vertebrae wander out of position-taking with them and stretching the area’s veins, arteries, nerves, and nerve bundles. This causes internal compression or stenosis and reduced and distorted nerve messaging (in the case of this article – vision problems).

The pupillary dilator acts to increase the size of the pupil to allow more light to enter the eye, as when driving at dusk or at night. Thus, any lesion affecting the superior cervical gangli may make it harder to focus one’s eyes in a dark room.

What is displayed in this image?

Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion and pupillary dilation. The Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion innervates the pupillary dilator muscle which dilates the pupil. When Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion activity is too great or disturbed this constant pupillary dilation can cause photophobia (sensitivity to light not actually a phobia or fear of it) and ultimately increased intraocular pressure since the Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion sits right in front of the C2 – C3 joint. When C2 – C3 instability is present, it is a likely structural cause of vision problems.

Another way upper cervical instability affects vision is through the optic nerve. When upper cervical instability causes interruptions/blockages of any flow into or out of the brain, as can occur with craniomedullar compression syndrome (vertebral artery compression), swelling can occur in the optic nerve causing a condition called papilledema. Vision changes such as blurred vision, double vision, constriction of the visual field (enlarging of the blind spot), decreased color perception or flickering of vision (lasting seconds) are common visual complaints with papilledema. Resolution of the upper cervical instability affects thus would restore normal hemodynamics in the cranium and thus the vision returns to normal. Having said this, when patients come with significant visual complaints and have not yet seen an ophthalmologist, we refer them to one. You always want to make sure that some internal eye condition does not exist, as some of these (like retina injuries) can be emergencies.

In this video:
Vision problems from vagus nerve injury and cervical instability

Ross Hauser, MD discusses vision problems from vagus nerve injury and how these can be caused by cervical instability and resolved with Prolotherapy and curve correction.

Summary learning points

At 2:00 Minutes of the video, Dr. Hauser refers to this slide: The details of what this slide says is below:

In this image, vision problems caused by cervical spine instability is connected to Diminished ocular blood flow, Exaggerated pupillary hippus dilating, Hampered accommodation or human ocular accommodation mechanism or accommodation reflex, Increased intra-ocular pressure or elevated intraocular pressure, Limited pupillary constriction, Optic nerve damage

What is being described in the above image?

In this image, vision problems caused by cervical spine instability are connected to Diminished ocular blood flow, Exaggerated pupillary hippus dilating, Hampered accommodation or human ocular accommodation mechanism or accommodation reflex, Increased intraocular pressure, or elevated intraocular pressure, Limited pupillary constriction, Optic nerve damage. Here are brief explanatory notes:

A swollen optic nerve – “Patients with abnormal visual function most likely have demyelinating optic neuritis”

We see in some patients, with vision problems that relate to a problem of cervical spine instability, a swollen optic nerve. A paper in the journal Practical Neurology (1) describes problems of a swollen optical nerve in this way:

“Patients with abnormal visual function most likely have demyelinating optic neuritis (swelling of the nerve sheath and optic nerve) or non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (loss of blood flow to the optic nerve). . . “

These are characteristic symptoms of compression or entrapment of the nerves and arteries in the cervical spine.

What does this image suggest?

In this ultrasound image, the swelling of the optic nerve is clear compared to a normal optic nerve. A common but not as commonly diagnosed cause of swollen optic nerve and problems of vision is increased intracranial pressure from cervical spine instability.

In this ultrasound image, the swelling of the optic nerve is clear compared to a normal optic nerve. A common but not as commonly diagnosed cause of swollen optic nerve and problems of vision is increased intracranial pressure from cervical spine instability.

 

Non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy

A December 2020 study (2)  in the International Journal of Ophthalmology evaluated whether narrowing of internal carotid artery siphon (a branch of the carotid artery) may increase the risk of developing non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION). This is as mentioned above a problem of loss of blood flow to the optic nerve.

What this study concluded was that a narrowing of the internal carotid artery siphon may increase the risk of developing non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy NAION. In essence, something is causing loss of blood flow to the optic nerve, it is a non-descript cause, but it is not vascular inflammation and it is causing vision problems. At our center, this cause is often identified as cervical spine instability. One tool that we use to assess problems, especially swelling, of the optic nerve is to take the nerve’s measurements to check for swelling via ultrasound. The test is illustrated below:

What are we seeing in this image?

In this photograph, an optic nerve measurement is taken via ultrasound.  We are looking for swelling of the optic nerve that may explain vision problems by way of demyelinating optic neuritis (swelling of the nerve sheath and optic nerve) or non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (loss of blood flow to the optic nerve). Characteristic symptoms of compression or entrapment of the nerves and arteries in the cervical spine.

In this photograph, an optic nerve measurement is taken via ultrasound.  We are looking for swelling of the optic nerve that may explain vision problems by way of demyelinating optic neuritis (swelling of the nerve sheath and optic nerve) or non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (loss of blood flow to the optic nerve). Characteristic symptoms of compression or entrapment of the nerves and arteries in the cervical spine.

An increase in optic nerve sheath diameter can be due to increased intracranial pressure.  Increased intracranial pressure causes the optic nerve to swell.

What does this image suggest? In this ultrasound image, the swelling of the optic nerve is clear compared to a normal optic nerve. A common but not as commonly diagnosed cause of swollen optic nerve and problems of vision is increased intracranial pressure from cervical spine instability.

In this ultrasound image, the swelling of the optic nerve is clear compared to a normal optic nerve. A common but not as commonly diagnosed cause of swollen optic nerve and problems of vision is increased intracranial pressure from cervical spine instability.

 

The traditional treatments of spinal fluid shunts and optic nerve sheath fenestration (operation to reduce swelling on optic nerve) never explain why the cerebrospinal pressure is high.

The optic nerves, as well as the other cranial nerves and spinal nerve roots, are surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space. As intracranial pressure rises from increased cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, the cerebrospinal fluid looks for a path of least resistance, one of which surrounds the optic nerve and can be evaluated by optic nerve sheath diameter measurements. It is the pressure on the optic nerve that accounts for some of the vision changes that are seen with cervical spine instability.

Historically, the optic nerve and its sheath diameter were noninvasively assessed by MRI and ophthalmoscopy but transorbital ultrasound has recently emerged as a promising assessment tool.

In the image below, the caption reads: A comparison of an enlarged optic nerve sheath diameter measurement from orbital ultrasound compared to one that is normal.

Optic nerve sheath diameter measurement is one non-invasive way to diagnose intracranial pressure hypertension (increased brain pressure).

What are we seeing in this image?

Here we are looking at a transverse view of the neck at the level of C2, showing the effect of malrotation of C2 on the C2 nerve root, compression of the carotid sheath as well as the superior cervical ganglion on the right side. Malrotation can affect the signaling of important nerves which impair the function of numerous systems. Many people with blurred vision also suffer from dizziness, headaches, swallowing difficulties, brain fog, and ringing in the ears, among other symptoms.

Can a herniated disc in the neck or whiplash cause blurred vision?

Many people contact us via email with their medical concerns. Here are some generalized examples of a person diagnosed with a herniated disc and a vision problem.

I have been having problems getting my eyes to focus. I went to the eye doctor, I got an exam and I am told my eyes are okay.

I have had neck problems for a long time. I have degenerative arthritis and it is not getting better. I have been having problems getting my eyes to focus. I went to the eye doctor, I got an exam and I am told my eyes are okay. The eye doctor suggested I should go to a cardiologist and make sure I do not have a blockage in my neck arteries. I have noticed that as my neck pain is progressing I get more frequent headaches and pain radiates into my jaw. When I told my eye doctor about the jaw pain that is when he suggested the cardiologist. 

After I went to the cardiologist

After the cardiologist, I seem to be okay heart and circulation-wise. I have been treated by a chiropractor for a herniated disc at C5-C6. He is also treating me for cervical lordosis. He has been telling me that my vision problems are related to my neck issues and that I should consider some type of injections or eventually a fusion surgery. I need to consider something because the blurry vision, especially in my one eye, is worse.

“Characteristics of visual disturbances reported by subjects with neck pain”

People, perhaps like yourself with visual disturbance will usually report on many problems that this condition is causing them. It is usually not limited to one aspect of vision.

In their 2014 paper: “Characteristics of visual disturbances reported by subjects with neck pain,” Researchers at The University of Queensland wrote in the journal Manual Therapy (3) of the most difficult to treat and manage visual disturbances in their patients with neck pain.

Let’s do some simple definitions before we proceed.

While these are very simple definitions, they get the point across that the vestibular system is a complex, delicate balancing system that stabilizes vision. More simply, it “keeps your eye steady.”

One more definition:

“Altered cervical joint position and movement sense, static and dynamic balance, and ocular mobility (eye muscle movement) and coordination should become an essential part of the routine assessment of those with traumatic neck pain”

Dr. Julia Treleaven, Ph.D., is a member of the Neck Pain and Whiplash Research Group, Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia. She has also written numerous papers on the problems of impaired function in the cervical neck. The paper cited at the top of this article is one that she co-authored.

In the July 2017 edition of The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy (4), she wrote:

There is considerable evidence to support the importance of cervical afferent dysfunction in the development of dizziness, unsteadiness, visual disturbances, altered balance, and altered eye and head movement control following neck trauma, especially in those with persistent symptoms.

However, there are other possible causes for these symptoms, and secondary adaptive changes should also be considered in the differential diagnosis.

Understanding the nature of these symptoms and differential diagnoses of their potential origin is important for rehabilitation. In addition to symptoms, the evaluation of potential impairments (altered cervical joint position and movement sense, static and dynamic balance, and ocular mobility (eye muscle movement) and coordination) should become an essential part of the routine assessment of those with traumatic neck pain, including those with concomitant injuries such as concussion and vestibular or visual pathology or deficits.

Smooth pursuit eye-movement abnormalities

Smooth pursuit eye-movement abnormalities are as they are described. Your eyes follow the movements of objects, and they should do so smoothly. An August 2020 paper presented by Stanford University researchers (5) described the case of a 22-year-old woman who suffered a whiplash injury. Here are the learning points of this case:

Whiplash injuries may disrupt normal cervical afferent and efferent projections. (As we discussed above, the blockage or dysfunction of nerve messages or blood flow in the neck.)  Oculomotor abnormalities have been reported in chronic whiplash cases, but there is limited knowledge of their presence in acute whiplash and how acute assessment may target early intervention.

(The doctors of the study) presented a literature review and case study of a 22-year-old female with an acute concussion and whiplash caused by a high-speed motor vehicle collision.

The more the patient moved her had, the more eye-movement abnormalities were observed

The patient was sent to physical therapy

After completing physical therapy

Manual therapy can help in acute situations

The doctors of this case history acknowledged that visual disturbance is a problem in acute whiplash situations and chronic whiplash situations, as we have seen in chronic cervical spine instability.

The conclusion of this case offered the doctors a chance to suggest: “This case highlights the need for ocular-motor impairment assessment following acute whiplash, specifically during cervical rotation. Early intervention should focus on cervical manual therapy and may be important in supporting altered cervical afferents causing oculomotor dysfunctions following acute whiplash.”

In other words, look for a problem when the patient is turning his or her head. This is a sign that something in the cervical spine is causing vision problems. Fix the neck, fix the vision problems.

Altered cervical joint position. Can a herniated disc in the neck cause blurred vision?

In our offices, we see patients following acute head or neck trauma, such as concussion, whiplash, and sports injury who suffer from these various problems including double vision and other vision problems. But as pointed out in this article, we also see patients with the same symptoms who suffer from cervical degenerative disc disease. What both challenges have in common is that the cervical vertebrae are hypermobile and are moving in and out of their natural position.

In this video, Danielle R. Steilen-Matias, MMS, PA-C  describes various challenges patients have with whiplash injury. There are many symptoms associated with whiplash, vision problems may only be one. In regard to vision problems, Danielle describes treatment options, here are the summary points:


Whiplash and cervical ligament damage – can this be the cause of your double, blurry vision?

In a 2019 study, researchers at The University of Queensland published their findings in PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation,(6) that suggests that people with whiplash-associated disorders who have difficulty with quick head movements and cervico-ocular dysfunctions, should be evaluated for changes in coordination between eye movement and neck muscle activity.

It is interesting to note that the research above also suggests that this problem with the neck muscles should be explored because not only is there a connection to vision problems, but, “Contrasting (new) changes are present in deep and superficial neck muscles with implications for neck function that may explain some common WAD symptoms.” If the muscle problem is affecting vision, it is affecting other symptoms as well.

In the journal Physical Therapy, researchers led by the Erasmus University Medical Center in the Netherlands showed the cervico-ocular reflex could be altered in non-traumatic neck pain patients. (7)

Here again, the problems of vision connected to cervical degenerative disc disease. To show the similarities between the non-traumatic neck pain patients and the traumatic neck pain patients, the researchers noted the same symptoms in patients with Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD).

The researchers offer an explanation for the increased cervico-ocular reflex in people with neck pain as altered afferent information from the cervical spine. (The blockage or dysfunction of nerve messages or blood flow in the neck that we mentioned above).

Quoting the study: “In the cervical spine, the information from muscles is a dominant source of information. Deficits in afferent information are suggested by magnetic resonance imaging studies showing a widespread presence of fatty infiltrates in the neck muscles of patients with chronic whiplash and to a lesser extent in patients with idiopathic neck pain (neck pain that is coming from an undiagnosed source).”

Problems of neck stability and movement are caused by muscle atrophy. Can muscle atrophy cause double, blurry vision?

So the researchers are looking at problems of neck stability and movement caused by muscle atrophy. They also suggest that a reduced range of motion in the neck alters the afferent information from the cervical spine. In our practice, we look also at the problems of cervical ligament instability.

One more problem. The vestibulo-ocular reflex and the cervico-ocular reflex work in conjunction, as the researchers noted:

“the vestibular and cervical system cooperate in order to maintain a clear visual image during head and eye movements. (These)  findings suggest that the vestibulo-ocular reflex does not compensate for the increased cervico-ocular reflex in the neck pain group.

This mismatch between cervico-ocular reflex and vestibulo-ocular reflex could lead to visual disturbances, dizziness, and postural control disturbances.”

The researchers then speculated a question that they said they would look at in a future study:

Is it possible to use the cervico-ocular reflex as an outcome measure to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in people with neck pain? In other words, does vision improvement mean the treatment is working? A patient who has vision impairment improved my neck pain treatments would certainly think so. That is something we have seen here in our practice.

For more information on problems related to vision problems and the cervico-ocular reflex, please see our article: Oscillopsia caused by cervical spine instability

Our treatments for cervical instability and related challenges of vision
Regenerative Medicine Injections | Caring Cervical Realignment Therapy

Part of our treatment program is a focus on cervical spine ligaments. The ligaments are the strong connective tissue that holds the vertebrae in place. When you have a slipped disc, a pinched nerve, a herniated disc, or a nerve, the underlying problem is that the vertebrae are compressing these structures and causing pain and possible neurologic-type symptoms. When the cervical spine instability is great enough or even focused enough on a certain neck segment, it can also cause compression on the arteries and veins that travel through and around the cervical vertebrae.

Prolotherapy is an injection technique that stimulates the repair of unstable, torn, or damaged ligaments. In 2014, we published a comprehensive review of the problems related to weakened damaged cervical neck ligaments in The Open Orthopaedics Journal. (8) We are honored that this research has been used in at least 6 other medical research papers by different authors exploring our treatments and findings and cited, according to Google Scholar, in more than 40 articles. In this research, we suggested that:

Treating and stabilizing the cervical ligaments can alleviate vision problems by preventing excessive abnormal vertebrae movement, the development or advancing of cervical osteoarthritis, and the myriad of problematic symptoms they cause.

An introduction to the treatment is best observed in the video below. A patient with cervical neck instability is treated with Prolotherapy using a Digital Motion X-ray machine.

Actual Prolotherapy treatment

This video jumps to 1:05 where the actual treatment begins.

This patient is having C1-C2 areas treated. Ross Hauser, MD, is giving the injections.

In 2015, our research team published our findings in our paper “The biology of prolotherapy and its application in clinical cervical spine instability and chronic neck pain: a retrospective study.” This peer-review research was published in the European Journal of Preventive Medicine. (9)

Here we wrote:In an effort to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of clinical cervical spine instability and chronic neck pain, we investigated the role of proliferative injection Prolotherapy in the reduction of pain and recovery of constitutional and neurological symptoms associated with increased intervertebral motion, structural deformity and irritation of nerve roots. . . 95 percent of patients reported that Prolotherapy met their expectations in regards to pain relief and functionality.”

An individualized treatment protocol may include the following:

A case history using PRP injections with Prolotherapy

A case history is a description of one person’s medical journey, treatment, and alleviation of symptoms. The results achieved may not be typical.

A patient came to Caring Medical after visiting multiple specialists without any explanation why his vision was blurry and he could not focus on objects. He originally saw various eye specialists who ran a vast series of tests, which were all negative. He then saw Neurologist and ENT doctor and was prescribed various medications including antibiotics, B12 shots, and steroids. These treatments did not help his vision problems.

MRI with and without contrast of the head, neck, and MR angiogram of the neck with and without contrast all were negative. He eventually saw a chiropractor and was told he had neck instability. The major cause? The patient was a chronic self-manipulator of his neck. He had cracked his neck over a thousand times.

On initial history at our neck center he specifically complained of blurred vision (worse at night), double vision, feeling off-balance, constant crepitus with neck movement, tinnitus mostly in the left ear, feeling of fullness in both ears, left posterior shoulder pain, and trouble sleeping.

His symptoms seemed to be worse when rotating his head left or right.  He was unable to drive at night and was unable to play golf. He had a constant 4/10 throbbing headache posterior or towards the rear of his upper neck.

A digital motion x-ray at our facility revealed multiple areas of cervical instability including significant anterolisthesis of C2-C3, C4-C5, and C5-C6, as well as gapping of facet joints bilaterally at C4-C5 and C5-C6, encroachment of the facet joint at C3-C4 and C4-C5 on the left with flexion and extension, as well evidence of overhang on lateral flexion of C1-C2.

The patient received Comprehensive Dextrose Prolotherapy to his whole neck, but PRP was used as the solution injected into the upper neck. At his second visit, 5 weeks later he stated overall his symptoms were 40% better and he was now able to drive at night.  After his second visit, his symptoms were 70% improved and his balance was so much better than he was back to playing golf.

The third treatment was decided to be the last treatment the patient would receive. He was 85% improved overall. He said his vision was back to normal and his ear fullness was gone. He had slight tinnitus and neck stiffness. Overall, his neck motion was much improved. He did not have the floaty or imbalance feelings anymore. His headaches were now minimal. Six months since his last visit on follow up he states he continues to improve.

Summary and contact us. Can we help you? How do I know if I’m a good candidate?

We hope you found this article informative and it helped answer many of the questions you may have surrounding vision problems, craniocervical instability, upper cervical spine instability, cervical spine instability, or simply problems related to neck pain. Just like you, we want to make sure you are a good fit for our clinic prior to accepting your case. While our mission is to help as many people with chronic pain as we can, sadly, we cannot accept all cases. We have a multi-step process so our team can really get to know you and your case to ensure that it sounds like you are a good fit for the unique testing and treatments that we offer here.

Please visit the Hauser Neck Center Patient Candidate Form

References for this article:

1 Margolin E. The swollen optic nerve: an approach to diagnosis and management. Pract Neurol. 2019;19(4):302-309. doi:10.1136/practneurol-2018-002057 [Google Scholar]
2 Fu ZY, Li HY, Wang YL. Imageology of internal carotid artery siphon in non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy. International Journal of Ophthalmology. 2020;13(12):1941. [Google Scholar]
3 Treleaven J, Takasaki H. Characteristics of visual disturbances reported by subjects with neck pain. Manual Therapy. 2014 Jun 1;19(3):203-7. [Google Scholar]
4 Treleaven J. Dizziness, Unsteadiness, Visual Disturbances, and Sensorimotor Control in Traumatic Neck Pain. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2017 Jun 16(0):1-25. [Google Scholar]
5 Boo M, Matheson G, Lumba-Brown A. Smooth Pursuit Eye-Movement Abnormalities Associated With Cervical Spine Whiplash: A Scientific Review and Case Report. Cureus. 2020 Aug;12(8). [Google Scholar]
6 Bexander CS, Hodges PW. Cervical rotator muscle activity with eye movement at different speeds is distorted in whiplash. PM&R. 2019 Jan. [Google Scholar]
7 de Vries J, Ischebeck BK, Voogt LP, Janssen M, Frens MA, Kleinrensink GJ, van der Geest JN. Cervico-ocular reflex is increased in people with nonspecific neck pain. Physical Therapy. 2016 Aug 1;96(8):1190-5. [Google Scholar]
8 Steilen D, Hauser R, Woldin B, Sawyer S. Chronic neck pain: making the connection between capsular ligament laxity and cervical instability. The Open Orthopaedics Journal. 2014;8:326.  [Google Scholar]
9 Hauser RA, Steilen D, Gordin K. The Biology of Prolotherapy and Its Application in Clinical Cervical Spine Instability and Chronic Neck Pain: A Retrospective Study. European Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2015 Jun 16;3(4):85. [Google Scholar]
10 Ischebeck BK, de Vries J, Van der Geest JN, Janssen M, Van Wingerden JP, Kleinrensink GJ, Frens MA. Eye movements in patients with Whiplash Associated Disorders: a systematic review. BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2016 Dec;17(1):1-1. [Google Scholar]
11 Boo M, Matheson G, Lumba-Brown A. Smooth Pursuit Eye-Movement Abnormalities Associated With Cervical Spine Whiplash: A Scientific Review and Case Report. Cureus. 2020 Aug 19;12(8). [Google Scholar]

This article was updated March 18, 2022

 

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