Eagle Syndrome Treatment – A Different non-surgical approach

Ross Hauser, MD

If you have landed on this page, it is very likely that you have been on a medical journey of discovery for many years. What you are obviously trying to discover is the mysterious and seemingly untreatable group of symptoms you have. As you will see in some of our sample stories below, you are not alone in this. It is extremely rare that someone will be given the first diagnosis of Eagle Syndrome, it is usually a diagnosis made after, in some cases, the realization of “what else could it be?” sinks in, and more “rare disorders” are sought out. Finally, for many, probably like yourself as you are reading up about Eagle Syndrome here, the diagnosis came.  It must be Eagle syndrome or its close companion Ernest Syndrome.

Eagle syndrome and the diagnosis of stylohyoid complex syndrome

Here are some of the things we hear that helped people get to a diagnosis of Eagle syndrome.

A note of explanation: Eagle syndrome and the diagnosis of stylohyoid complex syndrome are very similar. Researchers over the years have written of the main distinction being Eagle Syndrome is acquired after a neck injury, stylohyoid complex syndrome that develops in childhood, adolescence, or earlier in life. There is no history of previous injury, surgery, or trauma. The symptoms can be the same, the treatments can be the same.

My doctors are confused by my symptoms

I have been diagnosed with Eagle Syndrome, my doctors are confused by my symptoms. My symptoms are all isolated on the right side of my head and neck. 

I was in a car accident as a teenager, I had a whiplash-type injury. I have had chronic neck and back pain since. Over the years I have felt a grinding and crunching in my neck. My most recent MRI has revealed that the grinding was my C5-C6. They are grinding against each other and have caused developing bone spurs in that joint. I had been seeing a chiropractor and was prescribed physical therapy for problems in my neck that I thought was more related to C0-C1. It feels like my C1 is banging against the back of my skull.

I also developed severe and terrible ear pain. None of my doctors could figure it out. The ENT sent me to an ear specialist, I had lots of tests, no answers. I was put on medication for Meniere’s disease because there seemed to be nothing else to do. I have so many symptoms and so many problems. I have been searching online to see if I can possibly help myself and my doctors. One doctor suggested “Eagle Syndrome,” and I found some articles.

After all these years I think I may have found “ground zero,” to my problems. My vertigo, tinnitus, numbness in my face. The constant pain at the base of my skull and countless neurologic symptoms had my doctors looking at ALS and MS. I am trying to get all my doctors on board. The problem is that each specialist is so focused on their part of the body. My spinal specialist may as well be a million miles away from my ENT as much as they communicate. But I am going to concentrate on my neck and going to focus on that.

Throat inflammation

I was finally diagnosed with Eagle syndrome. My ENT initially suspected cancer. I was sent for a barrage of tests. Once it was NOT cancer, my ENT felt more free to explore other possibilities. He suggested Eagle syndrome. Cancer entered into this because no one could figure out why I had so much throat inflammation.

Novocaine and the dentist

I have been on a long medical journey. It started over 10 years ago with some dental work. I had numerous novocaine injections into my jaw at the TMJ. After the dental work, the symptoms then progressed over the years. Burning pain and numbness in my face and neck. Then, ear pain and fullness, balance problems, dizziness and vertigo, difficulty swallowing food stuck in the throat, throat inflammation, vision problems, pain at the back of my head, and the sensation when I wake up that I was punched at the base of my skull.

My neurologist figured that all this was coming from nerve compression in my neck and I had a C5-C7 fusion. Symptoms continued. The result of the surgery was an increase in my medications. The Diazepam does help with multiple symptoms including muscle pain and this odd sweating I have. I also have to take Vicodin when the pain is severe.

I took it upon myself to see what more I can do for myself besides relying on these medications. My interest was peaked in understanding the stylomandibular ligament, Ernest Syndrome, Eagles syndrome, and Barre Liéou syndrome as your description of these symptoms is actually describing me.

My ENT then suggested Trigeminal Neuralgia

My doctors and I have been searching for almost 20 years to try to figure out what is wrong with me. All my pain is limited to the left side of my body. Each specialist I see limits how much I can be helped by their specialty. I have been putting off a neck surgery because I already had some surgical attempts to fix the pain in my shoulders and arms. I am not really sure how much the neck surgery will help me when these other surgeries did not. My ENT then suggested Trigeminal Neuralgia. So I went home and started researching that. Things started to make sense because the Trigeminal Neuralgia possibility lead me to Ernest and Eagles Syndromes and the burning and tingling I feel in my mouth and face, the ear pain and fullness, the swallowing difficulties, sinus pressure, and neck pain, everything started to come together for me.

If there is an injury involved, whiplash, fall, accident, your doctor should be more aware of the possibility of Eagle Syndrome

Doctors at The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai Hospital have published their recommendations for Eagle Syndrome in the journal Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. (1) Here are the study highlights:

Most physicians have not heard of Eagle Syndrome and do not know where the stylomandibular ligament is located. For this reason, many people receiving the treatments mentioned above do not obtain relief from their pain as in the symptoms listed below.

Is it the dentistry?

There is controversy in the role of dental work in the development of Eagle Syndrome. An August 2018 case history in The Neuroradiology Journal (2) reported on one such case of “Eagle syndrome that became symptomatic after a dental procedure (wisdom teeth removal).” This was considered rare as the authors noted further: “A literature review (the looked at previously published research to find a similar case history) performed with focus on various etiologies (origins) of Eagle syndrome diagnosis found a previously published case of Eagle syndrome presenting as the pain of dental origin. However, no case reports of symptoms arising in a patient post-dental procedure were found in our search.”

In this case, a 36-year-old African American male went to the emergency room with odynophagia (painful swallowing) for the previous five days. The pain started approximately two hours following tooth extraction at a dentist’s office. The pain was described as 10/10 in intensity, continuous, sharp, non-radiating, associated with globus sensation (a lump or something stuck in the throat), cyclical vomiting, and dysphagia (difficulty swallowing). There was a worsening of the pain on swallowing, yawning, and chewing. On CT scan the styloid processes of the patient were noted to be elongated. Additionally, multiple calcifications were seen at the tip of the left styloid process with an unusual configuration at the superior surface of the left hyoid, suggesting a pseudo articulation (the elongation was so long it created a joint-like structure in the process). The patient was admitted, empirically treated for symptoms with oral pain medication, and discharged with recommended outpatient follow-up. However, the patient was subsequently lost to follow-up. No one knows what happened to him.

“There is not enough literature linking extractive dental events to Eagle syndrome”

At our center, we see many people who had cervical instability exasperated and their symptomology made worse by a long stay in the dental chair. To suggest to these people that the dental work had nothing to do with their current situation would be to suggest to them something they know is not true. Medical research and case histories are important elements to understanding diseases and disorders.  There is a famous expression in science, “Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.” Meaning that evidence for dental work causing symptomology has not yet been documented sufficiently.

A June 2021 study in the medical journal Healthcare (3) examined thirteen previously published medical papers articles that showed correlations between the onset of symptoms in Eagle syndrome and traumatic events and highlighted two possibilities: traumatic event could fracture the already elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament; trauma itself triggers the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to a lengthening of styloid process or calcification of stylohyoid ligament and therefore the typical symptoms. The two case reports concerning Eagle syndrome symptoms after extractive dental events describe the onset of classic type. The conclusion: “The analyzed articles confirm the correlation between traumatic event and onset of typical symptoms of Eagle syndrome. There is not enough literature linking extractive dental events to Eagle syndrome.”

The two case reports: The first case report was the one above published in The Neuroradiology Journal of the 36-year-old man that was lost to follow up. In the second case (4) “the patient presented for observation with acute pain on the right side of the face which radiated to the temporal and neck ipsilateral area, also causing a decrease in rotational movements of the neck and head in that direction. He also reported stress and insomnia for about three months, a period during which he underwent lower right jaw third molar extraction.”

Yet there were other case histories mounting connecting dental work with Eagle’s Syndrome.

The Root Canal

Here a case history was presented in the Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. (5) In this case doctors wrote of a 53-year-old woman with a complaint of pain in her throat and the left side of the head and face. Her pain began 16 years prior following a root canal of a mandibular tooth on the left side. She at times experienced severe pain attacks lasting approximately 10 minutes with a frequency of 10 times per day, which extended from the external auditory canal to the left side of the throat.

Additionally, the cough was a trigger for these pain attacks. Certain odors or nervousness were also aggravating factors of her pain, while pressure on the ear and diphenhydramine (antihistamine use) were mitigating factors. The patient had a past medical history significant for hypertension and favism (a condition where exposure to fava beans or certain medications causes the breakdown of red blood cells).

The patient’s general health as well as her head and neck were thoroughly examined. Her skull, cranial nerves, eyes, ears, nose, sinuses, thyroid, and dentition were unremarkable. No cervical, axillary, epitrochlear, or inguinal adenopathy (swelling of the lymph nodes) was detected. On oral and pharyngeal examination, severe tenderness was present on a bony prominence in the tonsillar cavity. Head and neck rotation was painful at the end of the active range of motion. As a result, lateral skull and neck x-rays were taken that showed elongation of the styloid process, thereby confirming the diagnosis of Eagle syndrome.

The dental student who was misdiagnosed: “even with knowledge of the condition and unusual direct access to several oral and maxillofacial specialists, it took 4 years and multiple misdiagnoses to reach the final diagnosis.”

Here is an April 2021 case report present in The American journal of case reports. (6) It was presented by doctors at the Department of Dental Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Eagle syndrome symptoms are non-specific and include severe throat, facial, and ear pain, or headaches. They are usually exacerbated by head rotation, swallowing, yawning, or chewing, but atypical presentations exist. It is a difficult pathology to diagnose and it can take several years before a proper diagnosis is made.

This report describes the case of a dental student presenting with an atypical presentation of Eagle syndrome. His styloid processes were 75 mm long and he was affected with severe pain to his throat, the anterior part of his ears, his submandibular area, and his molar teeth.

The pain was exacerbated during maximal mouth opening, yawning, mandibular protrusion, and during downward head tilt, but not during the classically described movements of head rotation, swallowing, yawning, or chewing. Due to the absence of the classic symptoms, even with knowledge of the condition and unusual direct access to several oral and maxillofacial specialists, it took 4 years and multiple misdiagnoses to reach the final diagnosis.

The guy who had no symptoms or evidence of abnormalities on scans has a problem when he turns his head to the left

The confusion and misunderstanding about Eagle’s Syndrome may continue to prolong the belief that this is a very rare condition. Therefore a doctor not knowing what to look for will miss it as did the dental surgeons in the above study.

Here is a case history reported and published by the Department of Radiology, Suleyman Demirel University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, in Turkey. (7)

No distinctive feature was found during the physical examination of the patient. The patient did complain that he suffered from vertigo when he turned his head to the left, which indicated that the vertigo was caused by cervical rotation, and the patient’s complaints disappeared completely in the neutral position.

The patient stated that he had been suffering from this complaint for about two years. The patient had no complaints of neck pain, foreign body sensation, dysphagia, or visual impairment. No finding was observed on the patient’s two-way cervical x-ray.

A CT angiography scan was performed. No intraluminal-extraluminal pathologies were detected on the common carotid artery, internal carotid artery, external carotid artery, or intra-cerebral vascular structures during the CT angiography examination.

No pathologies were found on soft tissues in the extra-vascular region. However, the styloid processes were found to be longer than normal when bone structures were examined. Also, it was discovered that the left process was adjacent to the internal carotid artery and caused a slight compression on the internal carotid artery.

The CT angiography scan was re-performed focusing on the left cervical rotation position considering that the elongated styloid processes might be the cause of vertigo secondary to vascular compression when taking the patient’s complaints and CT angiography findings together. As a result, it was observed that the compression on the internal carotid artery became evident. Based on the existing finding, the patient was diagnosed with Eagle syndrome aggravating with cervical rotation and was referred for surgery.

What are we seeing in this image? Compression on rotation

In this image we see a CT venogram 3-D reconstruction showing enlarged styloid bones. The image is divided in two with the A image to the left showing an anterior-posterior view. To the right in the B side with a lateral view.

In this patient, the enlarged styloid did not obstruct the internal jugular vein during the scan when she was supine, but when she was scanned using doppler ultrasound while upright and moving her neck, they both encroached on the carotid sheath.

Ligament calcification and elongation of the styloid process

Above I described the problems of diagnosis and treatment of suspected Eagle Syndrome. I also described the medical literature calling Eagle Syndrome a “rare” disorder. Yet in recent medical publications, this rare disorder is getting its fair share of attention as doctors share their case histories with each other.

Here we have a report on five people with suspected Eagle’s Syndrome. It was published in the July-August 2021 issue of the medical journal Neurologia. (8) The doctors of this paper describe the clinical characteristics and response to treatment of five patients who suffered from headaches and came for headache treatments and were then later diagnosed with Eagle syndrome.

Here is a summary report:

The patients were three men and two women between the ages of 24 and 51, presenting dull, intense pain, predominantly in the inner ear and the ipsilateral tonsillar fossa. All patients had chronic, continuous pain in the temporal region, with exacerbations triggered by swallowing.

Four patients had previously consulted several specialists at otorhinolaryngology departments; one had been prescribed antibiotics for suspected Eustachian tube inflammation.

In all cases, the palpation of the tonsillar fossa was painful. Computed tomography scans revealed elongation of the styloid process and/or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament in three patients. Four patients improved with neuromodulatory therapy (duloxetine, gabapentin, pregabalin) and only one required surgery for the elongated styloid process.

Vascular Eagle syndrome – Cervical Spine instability and length of styloid process elongation?

As many of you are already aware from your own symptomology of fainting, passing out, blackouts, increased intracranial pressure, and transient ischemic attack, the diagnosis of Vascular Eagle Syndrome is made when the elongated styloid process compresses the internal carotid artery in the upper cervical spine below the skull.

A May 2021 paper in the journal Neurological Sciences (9) suggests that cervical spine instability may play a greater role in internal carotid artery compression than the length of the styloid process elongation.

“Vascular Eagle syndrome, due to impingement of the extracranial internal carotid artery by the styloid process, is an uncommon and not yet widely recognized cause of internal carotid artery dissection. Up to now, this diagnosis is still presumptive, based mainly on the length of the styloid process. However, given the discrepancy between the much higher prevalence of an elongated styloid process in the population compared to the reported rate of Eagle syndrome, other anatomical factors beyond the length itself of this bony structure seem to be involved.

Results: Our study showed that in patients with styloid process-related dissection the styloid process angulation on the coronal plane tends to be more acute and that styloid process-C1 distance is significantly shorter at the side of the dissection. This data reinforces the idea that internal carotid artery dissection risk in the vascular Eagle syndrome has probably multifactorial pathogenesis.”

Ross Hauser, MD presents an overview of diagnosis and treatment for Ernest Syndrome and Eagle Syndrome.

Eagle Syndrome is medically known as the elongation of the styloid process and stylohyoid ligament calcification. This typically occurs with aging and often results in sharp, intermittent pain along the glossopharyngeal nerve that is located in the hypopharynx and at the base of the tongue. This is a stylohyoid ligament problem and is further explained in our accompanying article on Ernest Syndrome.

Summary video transcript

Focus on the stylomandibular ligament and development of bone spurs at the styloid process 

The problems of nerve and artery compression: Elongated styloid process and carotid artery syndrome

In our sample stories above and the many problems they describe we see that at the base of these people’s problems is a lack of diagnosis and understanding of what their symptoms are. This is not unique to Eagle Syndrome people. It is a common characteristic in many of the patients we see with upper cervical spine instability.

This is what your doctors know: Eagle syndrome is medically known as the elongation of the styloid process and stylohyoid ligament calcification. This typically occurs with aging and often results in sharp, intermittent pain along the glossopharyngeal nerve that is located in the hypopharynx and at the base of the tongue.

What are we seeing in this image?

The image is from a medical paper, published in the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. (10)

What is the ossification of the stylohyoid ligament complex?

Simply, the ligament is taking on the characteristic of bone. It is calcifying, thickening, hardening, and losing its natural elasticity. When the cervical spine ligaments lose their natural elasticity, they can lead to a “fusion,” where the neck does not move, or to hypermobility, where the vertebrae move too much and this can cause pinching and compression of the nerves and arteries and the myriad of symptoms associated with this problem.

Do you also see something in this image that we see? Lots of fillings in the back teeth.

By Kirchhoff G, Kirchhoff C, Buhmann S, Kanz KG, Lenz M, Vogel T, Kichhoff RM. A rare differential diagnosis to occupational neck pain: bilateral stylohyoid syndrome. J Occup Med Toxicol. 1, 14. 2006. doi:10.1186/1745-6673-1-14. PMID 16800878., CC BY 2.0, Link

The styloid process is a piece of bone that starts at the base of the skull and attaches to a number of muscles and ligaments that are connected to the throat and tongue. Elongation of the stolid process, as well as calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, can result in Eagle Syndrome. The stylohyoid ligament is located between the styloid process and the hyoid bone, a bone in the front of the throat, to which a number of throat muscles are attached.

What are we seeing in this image?

Here we have a rotational motion x-ray showing a patient’s styloid process.

Discussing arterial compression or carotid artery syndrome

A 2018 paper (11) discussed five case histories of patients with “rare” neurological symptoms of unknown origin: Here are the learning points observed in these five patients:

The five patients:

The findings:

The compression of the jugular vein

In January 2020 a team of researchers publishing in the journal CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics (13) offered a series of findings in the patients that they were seeing that allowed the researchers to come up with a diagnosis label called cervical spondylotic internal jugular venous compression syndrome. Let me explain this briefly because this syndrome is what we are seeing in our patients and can be applied to many diagnoses including Eagle Syndrome.

The possible compression of the jugular vein in Eagle Syndrome: The learning points of the research:

Before we finish looking at this research, a brief note: We have published extensive articles on the problems we are going to mention below. The links are provided.

Internal jugular vein gets compressed by anterior subluxation of C1 and C0-C1 instability

In December 2019, a paper appeared in the European Archives of Otorhinolaryngology. (14) The paper was the combined effort of a university hospital’s department of radiology, computer engineering department, and the anatomy department. The goal was to help doctors better identify stylohyoid complex syndrome by offering standardization of measurements of how long the styloid process should be and at what angle should it jut from the temporal bone (base of the skull). Deviations in these measurements can help with a diagnosis of Eagle syndrome.

While this would be helpful, Dr. Enrico Nastro Siniscalchi, maxillofacial surgery and assistant professor at the University of Messina took it one step further and more in agreement with what we have seen in our patients. Basically, the styloid process does not have to be that elongated or even display the type of angulation or measurement deviations discussed in the previously mentioned study. A normal size styloid process can cause arterial compression if there is cervical spine instability.

Here are his learning points in his published response. (15)

Digital motion X-ray showing C1-C2

This is one of our videos, it gives a clearer view of the DMX demonstrating C1-C2 instability in a patient.

  • Digital Motion X-ray is a great tool to show instability at the C1-C2 Facet Joints
  • The amount of misalignment or “overhang” between the C1-C2 demonstrates the degree of instability in the upper cervical spine.
  • This is treated with Prolotherapy injections (explained below) to the posterior ligaments that can cause instability.
  • At 0:40 of this video, a repeat DMX is shown to demonstrate correction of this problem.

Prolotherapy Treatment of Eagle syndrome

In this section, we are going to discuss possible treatments. That treatment is Prolotherapy. In simple terms, Prolotherapy repairs ligaments. In the case of Eagle syndrome. The cervical spine ligaments.

In the research and clinical observations explained above, we have been able to demonstrate that some neurological symptoms are related to the compression of the cervical nerves, arteries, and even the jugular vein, In Eagle Syndrome, this compression may be caused by a weakened or damaged set of cervical ligaments, here focused on the stylohyoid ligament complex. Prolotherapy injections at the stylomandibular ligament bony attachments will start the repair process. Once the stylomandibular ligament is strengthened, the chronic ear-mouth pain, tinnitus, dizziness, vertigo, and other pain complaints subside.

Research on cervical instability and Prolotherapy

Caring Medical has published dozens of papers on Prolotherapy injections as a treatment in difficult to treat musculoskeletal disorders. Here are some.

In our paper Chronic Neck Pain: Making the Connection Between Capsular Ligament Laxity and Cervical Instability we wrote: 

“To date, there is no consensus on the diagnosis of cervical spine instability or on traditional treatments that relieve chronic neck instability issues like those mentioned above. In such cases, patients often seek out alternative treatments for pain and symptom relief. Prolotherapy is one such treatment that is intended for acute and chronic musculoskeletal injuries, including those causing chronic neck pain related to underlying joint instability and ligament laxity. While these symptom classifications should be obvious signs of a patient in distress, the cause of the problems is not so obvious. Further and unfortunately, there is often no correlation between the hypermobility or subluxation of the vertebrae, clinical signs or symptoms, or neurological signs or symptoms. Sometimes there are no symptoms at all which further broadens the already very wide spectrum of possible diagnoses for cervical instability.”

In other words, Prolotherapy may treat very difficult to treat.

Caring Medical research

Summary and contact us. Can we help you? How do I know if I’m a good candidate?

We hope you found this article informative and it helped answer many of the questions you may have surrounding the problems of cervical spine instability and Eagle Syndrome. Just like you, we want to make sure you are a good fit for our clinic prior to accepting your case. While our mission is to help as many people with chronic pain as we can, sadly, we cannot accept all cases. We have a multi-step process so our team can really get to know you and your case to ensure that it sounds like you are a good fit for the unique testing and treatments that we offer here.

Please visit the Hauser Neck Center Patient Candidate Form

 

This is a picture of Ross Hauser, MD, Danielle Steilen-Matias, PA-C, Brian Hutcheson, DC.

Brian Hutcheson, DC | Ross Hauser, MD | Danielle Steilen-Matias, PA-C

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References:
1
Badhey A, Jategaonkar A, Kovacs AJ, Kadakia S, De Deyn PP, Ducic Y, Schantz S, Shin E. Eagle syndrome: A comprehensive review. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. 2017 May 6. [Google Scholar]
2 Li S, Blatt N, Jacob J, Gupta N, Kumar Y, Smith S. Provoked Eagle syndrome after dental procedure: A review of the literature. The neuroradiology journal. 2018 Aug;31(4):426-9. [Google Scholar]
3 Saccomanno S, Quinzi V, D’Andrea N, Albani A, Coceani Paskay L, Marzo G. Traumatic Events and Eagle Syndrome: Is There Any Correlation? A Systematic Review. InHealthcare 2021 Jul (Vol. 9, No. 7, p. 825). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. [Google Scholar]
4 Sowmya GV, Singh MP, Manjunatha BS, Nahar P, Astekar M. A case of unilateral atypical orofacial pain with Eagle’s syndrome. Journal of cancer research and therapeutics. 2016 Oct 1;12(4):1323. [Google Scholar]
5 Taheri A, Firouzi-Marani S, Khoshbin M. Nonsurgical treatment of stylohyoid (Eagle) syndrome: a case report. Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. 2014 Oct 1;40(5):246-9. [Google Scholar]
6 Michaud PL, Gebril M. A Prolonged Time to Diagnosis Due to Misdiagnoses: A Case Report of an Atypical Presentation of Eagle Syndrome. The American Journal of Case Reports. 2021;22:e929816-1. [Google Scholar]
7 Demirtaş H, Kayan M, Koyuncuoğlu HR, Çelik AO, Kara M, Şengeze N. Eagle syndrome causing vascular compression with cervical rotation: case report. Polish journal of radiology. 2016;81:277. [Google Scholar]
8 González-García N, Porta-Etessam J, García-Azorín D. Eagle syndrome: Toward a clinical delimitation. Neurología (English Edition). 2020 Feb 13. [Google Scholar]
9 Tardivo V, Castaldi A, Baldino G, Siri G, Bruzzo M, Del Sette M, Romano N. Internal carotid artery dissection related to abnormalities of styloid process: is it only a matter of length?. Neurological Sciences. 2021 May 31:1-7. [Google Scholar]
10 Kirchhoff G, Kirchhoff C, Buhmann S, Kanz KG, Lenz M, Vogel T, Kichhoff RM. A rare differential diagnosis to occupational neck pain: bilateral stylohyoid syndrome. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 2006 Dec;1(1):1-5. [Google Scholar]
11 Aydin E, Quliyev H, Cinar C, Bozkaya H, Oran I. Eagle syndrome presenting with neurological symptoms. Turk Neurosurg. 2018 Jan 1;28(2):219-25. [Google Scholar]
12 Finsterer J, Grisold W. Disorders of the lower cranial nerves. Journal of neurosciences in rural practice. 2015 Jul;6(3):377. [Google Scholar]
13 Ding JY, Zhou D, Pan LQ, Ya JY, Liu C, Yan F, Fan CQ, Ding YC, Ji XM, Meng R. Cervical spondylotic internal jugular venous compression syndrome. CNS neuroscience & therapeutics. 2020 Jan;26(1):47-54. [Google Scholar]
14 Ayyildiz VA, Senel FA, Dursun A, Ozturk K. Morphometric examination of the styloid process by 3D-CT in patients with Eagle syndrome. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology. 2019 Dec 1;276(12):3453-9. [Google Scholar]
15 Siniscalchi EN. Dynamic imaging in suspected Eagle syndrome. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology. 2020 Jan 1;277(1):307-. [Google Scholar]

 

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