Caring Medical - Where the world comes for ProlotherapyComparing Gluteus Medius Tendinopathy Injections and Surgery

Ross Hauser, MD, Caring Medical Regenerative Medicine Clinics, Fort Myers, Florida
David N. Woznica, MD, Caring Medical Regenerative Medicine Clinics, Oak Park, Illinois
Danielle R. Steilen-Matias, MMS, PA-C, Caring Medical Regenerative Medicine Clinics, Oak Park, Illinois

Comparing Gluteus Medius Tendinopathy Injections

We often see five types of patients in our clinics with Gluteus Medius Tendinopathy.

  • The athletic person,
  • the person with a physically demanding job,
  • the person who has had long-term degenerative wear and tear,
  • the person who had a hip replacement and Gluteus Medius Tendinopathy became a post-surgical complication, and
  • a middle age person, more likely female, who does no exercise. Women are at greater risk for tendinopathy of the hip than middle age men, especially inactive ones.

For some of these people, perhaps yourself included, they have gone on to develop, Snapping Hip Syndrome. Some doctors may also suspect Greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Please see our article where we cite research that injuries to the muscles and tendons around the hip are the actual cause of Greater trochanteric pain syndrome, not bursitis. We also discuss this below.

Some things many of these people have in common is that their diagnosis of Gluteus Medius Tendinopathy was not that easy to come by or confirm, that they have a lot more pain than just what is coming out of their hip. Some cannot even walk a few yards without significant pain. Some are on painkillers until their situation worsens enough to get a surgery that they may or may not want.

So you went to your health care provider or doctor with chronic hip pain

You went to your health care provider or doctor with a chronic hip pain that is becoming more and more of a challenge to your daily routine. You tell your health care provider that the pain concentrates on the outer side of your hip and this nagging injury that has bothered you for some time. You are now in this doctor’s office, you tell them, because the problem is getting worse and worse and your self-management techniques are no longer helping.

Based on this evidence, the health care provider may suspect a number of things including a “hip tendonitis.” The focus will then turn to the Gluteus Medius Tendon of the hip as this is the most common and likely tendon injury causing your outer hip pain. 

Gluteus Medius Tendinopathy | The white Gluteus Medius Tendon attaches the Gluteus Medius muscle to the hip bone. When this tendon is torn or damaged, inflammation, pain and instability follows.

The traditional and conservative care treatments of Gluteus Medius Tendinopathy


For some people, these treatments will be effective in the first go round, for others it will make your hip pain worse.

Many of you reading this article will get the first of your anti-inflammatory medication prescriptions or over-the-counter recommendations at the onset of your conservative care treatment. You may have also received a referral to physical therapy.

For some people, these treatments will be effective in the first go round. These people are not the ones we see in our office. We see the others for whom these treatments accelerated a damaging osteoarthritis breakdown of your hip.

Anti-inflammatory medications, painkillers, rest, cortisone injections, physical therapy, are parts of the conservative care treatment options patients are routinely offered in traditional care doctor’s offices. If you are reading this article are probably well into your treatment options and have found that many do not work.

We have written extensively on these treatment options: Please see our articles:

The failure of these treatments are no just our opinion. We cite numerous medical references from studies performed at leading hospitals and medical universities around the world to back up these treatments lack of long-term success.

I am seeking treatment because I can’t get back to training or work

Often a runner or active person with outer hip pain comes into our office. He/she is here because:

  • They had outer hip pain and continued to run, work, or do their activities.
  • They took anti-inflammatories so they could continue to run, work, or do their activities.
  • They took on the mindset that they will just run or work through the pain or their activities.
  • They started having knee pain, low back pain, ankle pain.
  • His/her running/physical activity went from a positive, happy experience into a miserable tale of survival.

We get many emails into our office looking for answers. Someone looking for help  may write something like this:

I am a runner, but not now. This hip pain has been going on for almost three years. I no longer run and try to keep in condition with bike riding. I have been in physical therapy and rehab numerous times. They don’t help. I was told to do no training and do as much resting as I could. I completely shut down for 6 weeks, that did not help. I have had numerous cortisone injections, probably more than I should have got. That did not help. I am not looking for one last chance to avoid a surgery I do not want.


My doctor thought my hip pain was from osteoarthritis. So he sent me to a surgeon. I did not have hip osteoarthritis enough to recommend hip replacement, so that was ruled out. I did have wear and tear damage and was told I had a gluteal tendinopathy. Since there was no other significant enough damage to the other parts of my hip to recommend any surgeries I was given painkillers and anti-inflammatories and basically sent on my way until the damage became bad enough to get a surgery. I was able to get some physical therapy but I found that more painful than helpful. I no longer walk when I can, I ride, take elevators, even scooters in the supermarket. While this has helped my pain, it is not helping me.


The search for an answer when your doctor thinks your Gluteus Medius tendinopathy pain is actually from your hip, lower back, knee and ankle.

Sometimes a person will reach out to us with a medical history of a wild goose chase. Their story may go something like this:

I have been searching for an answer for two years. I have had numerous MRIs. At first my doctors thought that my problem was a low back problem, one of sciatica or SI joint dysfunction, maybe both. Since one of my MRIs showed degenerative disc disease and a bulging disc I was sent to cortisone then epidural injection. These injections did not provide any relief. So my doctors took me into a different direction. A search for the pain element in my knee and my hip. I got cortisone in my painful knee, that did not help. I got cortisone in my hip, that helped. Another MRI and an ultrasound showed gluteus medius tendinopathy. As the cortisone helped in my hip, my doctors now started isolating on my hip. The cortisone has now worn off, I am on painkillers. We don’t seem to have a plan in place that can effectively help me. I can’t walk because I have pain from low back to ankle.

When this patient comes into our clinic, we talk with them about the difficulties in isolating one part of the pelvic-hip-spine complex as the main culprit of their problem. This we find especially true in treating a patient with problems of Gluteus Medius tendinopathy.

When the hip joint region becomes unstable, the muscles, including the Gluteus Medius, tries to create stability by tensing, cramping or going into spasm. When the muscle tenses, you have “pull” on the tendon. If the tendon is damaged, it will be very painful. That painful tendon starts sending signals to the hip and spine and knee and leg and ankle that it needs help taking some of the load. Suddenly you have pain messages going up and down your leg from spine to foot.

How a weak hip creates degenerative disc disease, degenerative knee disease, and degenerative pelvic disease.

Let’s look at a January 2018 study. (1) This study is an illustration of the damaging effects of one joint being wobbly on the entire movement of the whole body. Obviously, we will be looking at the hip as the culprit joint.

Women team handball players are among the most fit athletes. Their sport depends great stress on the player’s joints. The researchers from Auburn University, School of Kinesiology, Sports Medicine and Movement Laboratory examined how lumbopelvic-hip complex stability, via knee valgus, affects throwing kinematics (movement) during a team handball jump shot.

Read again how hip instability is being measured: the complex hip-spine-pelvic interaction and instability is being measured by knee angle. The greater the knee angle the greater the instability coming from the hip/spine.

Points to consider

  • The women with greater instability in the hip/spine/pelvic region through the ball with less force (they were weaker)
  • The women with greater instability in the hip/spine/pelvic region were at increased risk of injury in the upper (arm and shoulder) and lower extremities (Knee, ankle, feet) when landing from a jump shot because of the energy losses throughout the kinetic chain and lack of utilization of the entire chain.
    • What does all that mean? Their entire body was at risk of fall, loss of balance, impact injury.

You do not need to be a high level female team handball player to understand the problems in the hip cause and interact with instability in the lower spine and pelvis and these interactions put the knee, the ankle at risk for instability and loss of balance.

Gluteus Medius tendinopathy is now making your lower back, knee and ankle hurt worse

coronal plane

The coronal plane — This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license.

At this point we hope you realize that isolating and determining a treatment plan for the Gluteus Medius tendon should include the whole hip. The Gluteus Medius tendinopathy you are suffering from is part of or a cause of a rapidly deteriorating hip situation. As we like to say, if you have four flat tires, fixing one is not fixing the whole problem.

The science of overcompensation and why your knee, ankle, hip and knee hurt.

Above we briefly explained the compensatory mechanism your hip is trying to provide you in your walking and running. It is compensating for your tendon problems. Now let’s look at what that compensation is doing to the rest of you.

University researchers in Australia write in the Journal of electromyography and kinesiology: (2

  • Musculoskeletal injuries in runners are common and may be attributed to the inability to control pelvic equilibrium in the coronal plane. (In simpler terms pelvic instability or a wobbly gait is causing running problems).
  • This lack of pelvic control in the frontal plane can stem from dysfunction of the gluteus medius. (The gluteus medius muscle stabilizes the pelvis when one leg leaves the ground during the running stride. When the gluteus medius tendon is injured, you lose stability when one leg leaves the ground).

Some points the researchers made: This instability in the hip is causing:

Treatments for Gluteus Medius Tendinopathy

Above we described the problems of conservative care in the treatment. Let’s touch on surgery. Surgery maybe the right option for some people. It is usually not the first treatment people pick. There is a reason there is conservative non-surgical care. The medical research tells us that “elective,” surgery is just that. You elect to have it, it is usually not considered an essential treatment to fix your problems but it is offered for those people who believe surgery is the only way.

Here is research from September 2018, The Physician and sportsmedicine, (3) lead by the Michigan State University College of Human Medicine. It discusses what happens when conservative care does not work and why surgery may be an option.

  • “(Damage) of the gluteus medius can result in significant hip pain, loss of motion, and decreased function. Affected patients characteristically have symptoms including lateral hip pain and a Trendelenburg gait (this is an exaggerated walking problem where the hip/pelvis drops because of the lack of support from gluteus medius muscle/tendon complex), which may be (unresponsive) to conservative management such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), physical therapy, and injections. In these cases, both open and arthroscopic repair techniques have been described, with recent literature demonstrating excellent patient-reported outcomes.”

Here is an October 2018 study from German doctors in the journal Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie,(4) (a journal dedicated to Orthopedic and trauma surgery.)

What this study points out is who are the three candidate types surgery will help and how long the surgical recovery will take:

Who should consider surgery?

  • People with symptomatic tear of gluteus medius and/or gluteus minimus tendon with persisting pain after nonsurgical treatment.
  • Primarily Reconstruction: mass rupture with gluteal insufficiency (full or massive tear caused by injury or accident – a trauma.)
  • People for whom previous gluteus medius tendon surgeries have failed and the another surgery is needed to fix the first or previous surgeries.

Who surgery should not be recommended for:

  • People whos muscle/tendons are damaged beyond surgical repair
  • People whose gluteal muscles have significantly atrophied or have fatty degeneration
  • People with local infections

After the surgery:

  • Physical therapy with partial weight bearing for 6 weeks
  • No hip rotation 6 weeks after surgery.
  • From week 7 after surgery, free range of motion, active-assisted abduction and increase in weight-bearing.
  • No peak load (running or other activities) for 4 months.
  • Thromboembolic prophylaxis (blood clot prevention) until full weight-bearing is reached.

Platelet Rich Plasma injections and Prolotherapy injections for Gluteus Medius Tendinopathy


In basic terms, Platelet Rich Plasma injections are the application of concentrated blood platelets, which contain and release growth factors to stimulate recovery in non-healing injuries. The video describes the technique, the research below describes the results. Prolotherapy is an injection technique utilizing simple sugar or dextrose.

We do not use PRP treatments in isolation. As we have discussed in this article, gluteus medius tendinopathy is a problem that single injections, for the most part, have not been shown to be effective in the long-term as attested to in the research above.

This video was created nine years ago. The basic concepts of healing remain the same. We have been treating sports related injuries with regenerative medicine injections for 26+ years.

In this video you will see the application of Platelet Rich Plasma injections and the use of Prolotherapy injections. Prolotherapy is the injection of dextrose, or a simple sugar, to irritate damaged hip ligaments. Hip ligaments provide stability, damaged hip ligaments provide INSTABILITY.

The dextrose in the Prolotherapy solution, when injected around the injury, causes a mild inflammatory response, mimicking what the body does naturally in response to soft-tissue injuries. The immune system is drawn to the area of injury and immune cells and platelets release growth factors to build new healthy tissue.  The ligaments and tendons become thicker and stronger from this inflammatory response. Again, this is explained in the video above, and further below.

Research on PRP injections as a non-surgical option:

This is from a study from doctors at the Hospital of Special Surgery in New York published in the Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine. (5)

First a discussion on surgery from this research: (This research is from a surgical hospital.)

  • Surgery is considered for difficult and unresponsive lateral hip pain due to gluteus medius tears.
  • While there are several studies supporting the effectiveness of certain surgeries, some studies indicate prolonged recoveries.
  • One study  reported that 19% of 72 patients who underwent surgical repair of gluteal tendon tears experienced significant complications, including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, tendon retear, wound hematoma, pressure sores, wound infection, and even fracture of the greater trochanter.(6)

Results achieved with PRP injections

  • A total of 21 patients (17 females, 4 males) with an average age of 48 were followed for an average of nearly 20 months after treatment.
  • “Statistically and clinically significant improvements were observed across all outcome measures with over 1-year follow-up on all participants.”
  • “Our results suggest that PRP is a safe and relatively effective nonsurgical treatment option for recalcitrant lateral hip pain secondary to gluteus medius tendinopathy from tendinosis and/or partial tears of the gluteus medius tendon.”

PRP vs Cortisone

In January 2018, university researchers in Australia went into their study with the idea that they can validate the idea that there would be NO difference between the effects of cortisone injection or PRP injection for gluteal tendinopathy. Both treatments would be given one chance to work, one injection. Here is a summary of their findings published in the American Journal of Sports Medicine.(7)

  • The average age of the study participant was 60 years old, 90% were female. The patients complained of gluteal tendinopathy pain and function problems for an average 14 months.
  • The single shots were administered and monitored.
    • At two weeks, there was no difference between the two groups, measured improvements were about equal.
    • At six weeks, there was no difference between the two groups, measured improvements were about equal.

At 12 weeks a change occurred:

  • Improvement in the PRP group was significantly better at 12 weeks compared with the corticosteroid group.

CONCLUSION: Patients with chronic gluteal tendinopathy for more than 4 months, diagnosed with both clinical and radiological examinations, achieved greater clinical improvement at 12 weeks when treated with a single PRP injection than those treated with a single corticosteroid injection.

Again, let us point out in this research that this was a single cortisone injection  vs. a single PRP injection. The video above is reflective of our treatments.

PRP and Prolotherapy for Gluteus Medius Tendinopathy – How we do it.

As mentioned, the above research compares one injection of cortisone to one injection of PRP. One injection of PRP is not our treatment methods.

Why treat with Prolotherapy when we inject PRP? Because Prolotherapy makes the PRP work better, the PRP makes the Prolotherapy work better.

Prolotherapy helps repair tendons:

A multi-national team of researchers including those from Rutgers University, Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, and the University Regensburg Medical Centre in Germany tested the effects of Prolotherapy on tenocytes repair (tendon cells). Published in the journal Clinical orthopaedics and related research(8) what the team was looking for was how did Prolotherapy injections change the immune system’s response to a difficult to teal tendon injury.

These are the highlights:

  • Prolotherapy injections changed the cellular metabolic activity to a healing, regenerative environment in the tendon cells.
  • Prolotherapy activated RNA expression. The healing phase of soft tissue injury starts spontaneously after the tendon injury. Healing occurs  in three phases: inflammation, proliferation and maturation. RNA expression is the communication changes in genes (remember the gene expression from above)  that coordinates the beginning and ending of these three cycles of healing and injury repair process.
  • Activated Protein secretion – the process of rebuilding. For a fascinating look at this subject please see our article on Extracellular matrix in osteoarthritis and joint healing.
  • Cell migration. The ability of healing cells to get to the site of an injury, and the denial of damaging inflammatory factors from reaching the same site.

In our own published research, we reported in the Clinical medicine insights. Arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders, (9) we reported that the consensus is growing regarding the effectiveness of dextrose Prolotherapy as an alternative to surgery for patients with chronic tendinopathy who have persistent pain despite appropriate rehabilitative exercise.

Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy and Prolotherapy

Platelet Rich Plasma therapy (PRP) can be added to the traditional Prolotherapy solution to expedite the process, in specific cases.

  • PRP treatment re-introduces your own concentrated blood platelets into areas of chronic tendinopathy
  • Your blood platelets contain growth and healing factors. When concentrated through simple centrifuging, your blood plasma becomes “rich” in healing factors, thus the name Platelet RICH plasma.
  • The procedure and preparation of therapeutic doses of growth factors consist of an autologous blood collection (blood from the patient), plasma separation (blood is centrifuged), and application of the plasma rich in growth factors (injecting the plasma into the area.)

Do you have a question about tendon damage and repair?  Get help and information from Caring Medical

1 Gilmer GG, Gascon SS, Oliver GD. Classification of lumbopelvic-hip complex instability on kinematics amongst female team handball athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2018 Jan 9. [Google Scholar]
2
Semciw A, Neate R, Pizzari T. Running related gluteus medius function in health and injury: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2016 Oct 31;30:98-110. [Google Scholar]
3 LaPorte C, Vasaris M, Gossett L, Boykin R, Menge T. Gluteus medius tears of the hip: a comprehensive approach. The Physician and sportsmedicine. 2018 Oct 5:1-6. [Google Scholar]
4 Gollwitzer H, Hauschild M, Harrasser N, Banke IJ. Surgical refixation of gluteal tendon tears by mini-open double-row technique. Operative Orthopadie und Traumatologie. 2018 Oct.
[Google Scholar]
5 Lee JJ, Harrison JR, Boachie-Adjei K, Vargas E, Moley PJ. Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections With Needle Tenotomy for Gluteus Medius Tendinopathy: A Registry Study With Prospective Follow-up. Orthop J Sports Med. 2016 Nov 9;4(11):2325967116671692. eCollection 2016. [Google Scholar]
6 Walsh MJ, Walton JR, Walsh NA. Surgical repair of the gluteal tendons: a report of 72 cases. The Journal of arthroplasty. 2011 Dec 1;26(8):1514-9. [Google Scholar]
7 Fitzpatrick J, Bulsara MK, O’Donnell J, McCrory PR, Zheng MH. The Effectiveness of Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections in Gluteal Tendinopathy: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial Comparing a Single Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection With a Single Corticosteroid Injection. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2017:0363546517745525. [Google Scholar]
8 Ekwueme EC, Mohiuddin M, Yarborough JA, Brolinson PG, Docheva D, Fernandes HA, Freeman JW. Prolotherapy Induces an Inflammatory Response in Human Tenocytes In Vitro. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®. 2017 Apr 27:1-1. [Google Scholar]
9 Hauser RA, Lackner JB, Steilen-Matias D, Harris DK. A Systematic Review of Dextrose Prolotherapy for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain. Clin Med Insights Arthritis Musculoskelet Disord. 2016;9:139-59. Published 2016 Jul 7. doi:10.4137/CMAMD.S39160 [Google Scholar]

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