Prolotherapy Research and Treatment Guidelines

This article will cover information on Prolotherapy including general questions on Prolotherapy treatments, side effects, research, reviews and medical studies.

Ross Hauser, MD

Prolotherapy is an in-office injection treatment that research and medical studies have shown to be an effective, trustworthy, reliable alternative to surgical and non-effective conservative care treatments. In our opinion, based on extensive research and clinical results, Prolotherapy is superior to many other treatments in relieving the problems of chronic joint and spine pain and, most importantly, in getting people back to a happy and active lifestyle. This is why it is the Caring Medical treatment method of choice.

While we treat with H3 Prolotherapy methods we will refer to these treatments simply as Prolotherapy for the remainder of this article.

Is Prolotherapy like cortisone? 

Prolotherapy is a regenerative injection treatment used to treat joint and spine pain by repairing damaged and weakened ligaments and tendons.

What is the evidence for Prolotherapy?

For patients who are looking into Prolotherapy, please understand that this is a specialty procedure with technique and experience being a key component. What we present on our website is based on our experience and research and does not apply to all practitioners or injection therapies.

In July 2016, our doctors at Caring Medical published findings on the effectiveness of Prolotherapy treatments in the medical journal: Clinical Insights: Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders, here are the summary highlights:

Our doctors reviewed 32 studies on dextrose prolotherapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain. The following conclusions are made:

Overall, Prolotherapy has been demonstrated to be efficacious and should be considered as a treatment for pain and dysfunction associated with chronic musculoskeletal conditions, particularly tendinopathies and osteoarthritis.

Hauser RA, Lackner JB, Steilen-Matias D, Harris DK. A Systematic Review of Dextrose Prolotherapy for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain. Clinical Medicine Insights Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders. [Google Scholar]

Prolotherapy for Knee Pain

In this video, Ross Hauser, MD explains a Prolotherapy knee treatment as performed at our Caring Medical clinics. This is not typical of the way treatment may be performed in other doctor’s offices.

Video learning and demonstrated points:

Published research papers from our doctors at Caring Medical on Knee Disorders

Articles for patients looking for options to eventual knee replacement

Chronic knee problems from active lifestyle, physically demanding work, or sports related knee injuries

Meniscus tears

Patella / Knee Cap

In this video David Woznica, MD, of Caring Medical Regenerative Medicine Clinics explains Prolotherapy treatments.

The multiple Prolotherapy injection technique demonstrated in video, stimulate healing and repair of the tendon attachments, the knee ligaments and addresses problems of the cartilage that sits behind the knee cap and in the trochlear groove. When more significant degenerative damage has occured, we may utilize Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy, the use of your own blood platelets reintroduced into the knee.

Prolotherapy injections to restore stability to the knee cap will usually take 4 – 6 treatments. Patients come back every 4 to 6 weeks as we strengthen the knee ligaments and the attachments of the patella tendon and the quadricep tendon as well as address the cartilage issues behind the knee cap and in the trochlear groove where the patella slides against the thigh bone.

Knee Ligaments

Knee diagnosis


Pain AFTER knee arthroscopic surgery

Pain AFTER knee replacement

Prolotherapy and PRP (Platelet Rich Plasma) Injections for Knee Pain

Comprehensive Prolotherapy is an injection technique utilizing many healing factors. They can include or be used in conjunction with Dextrose, Blood Platelets, and stem cells. The stem cells and blood platelets are drawn from you the patient. We typically DO NOT offer stem cell therapy for knee pain as a first option. We may offer PRP treatments in conjunction with Prolotherapy at initial treatment visits.

WE OFFER PRP with PROLOTHERAPY. We do not offer PRP as a single injection treatment.

In this video, Ross Hauser, MD explains how one injection of PRP will likely not work


Prolotherapy and Stem Cell Therapy for Knee Pain

Bone marrow derived stem cells

We do not offer stem cell therapy to every patient, in fact we offer this treatment very rarely. The treatment is usually offered only in the most advanced cases of knee degenerative disease. The articles below give a comprehensive review of when stem cell therapy will work, when it will not work, and the realistic options of when it should be considered.

Prolotherapy for Back Pain

Published research papers from our doctors at Caring Medical on low back pain

Caring Medical patients are often surprised to learn that Prolotherapy can heal most disc problems in neck and back. While we talk about Prolotherapy healing joint pain that results from ligament and tendon injuries, most people are unaware that disc problems results from ligament injuries or instability along the spine. Patients with degenerative disc disease, herniated discs, bulging discs, bone on bone, etc can all be healed with Prolotherapy.

Prolotherapy works to stabilize the ligaments of the spine allowing discs to get back into position and can even create space for a person who has lost space due to one or more degenerated disc. In Prolotherapy research from the doctors of Caring Medical, patients with more than four years of unresolved low back pain were shown to have had their pain improved, stiffness, range of motion, and quality of life measures even 12 months subsequent to their last Prolotherapy session.

Back pain by initial diagnosis

Spondylolisthesis,  Spondylolysis, Spondylisis

Failed back surgery syndrome

Conservative Care Back Pain Options


Prolotherapy for Shoulder Pain

Ross Hauser, MD explains and demonstrates a Prolotherapy treatment to the shoulder.

Published research papers from our doctors at Caring Medical on Shoulder Disorders


Rotator Cuff Tears

Shoulder Instability

In this video a general demonstration of Prolotherapy and PRP treatment is given for a patient with repeated shoulder dislocations

Danielle R. Steilen-Matias, MMS, PA-C narrates the video and is the practitioner giving the treatment:

Prolotherapy for Cervical Spine Instability and related symptoms

This section will also provide information on the following symptoms as they relate to neck pain and cervical spine instability

The Horrific Progression of Neck Degeneration with Unresolved Cervical Instability. Cervical instability is a progressive disorder causing a normal lordotic curve to end up as an “S” or “Snake” curve with crippling degeneration.

The Horrific Progression of Neck Degeneration with Unresolved Cervical Instability. Cervical instability is a progressive disorder causing a normal lordotic curve to end up as an “S” or “Snake” curve with crippling degeneration.

Since 1993, Ross Hauser, MD and Marion Hauser, MS, RD have developed Caring Medical Regenerative Medicine Clinics into one of the world’s leading clinics for Prolotherapy (including dextrose, PRP, and stem cells) with a commitment to helping the toughest chronic pain cases. ​Today, our work is heavily focused on the cervical spine.

Published research papers from our doctors at Caring Medical on Cervical Spine Instability and related symptoms

Degenerative Disc Disease in the Cervical Spine

Cervical Spine instability and Whiplash Associated Disorders and Post Concussion Syndrome

Cervical Spine instability and TMJ

Cervical Spine instability and hearing problems

Cervical Spine instability and vision problems

Cervical Spine instability and headaches

Ross Hauser, MD. Cause of occipital neuralgia and migraines seen on DMX and resolved with Prolotherapy

In this video, Ross Hauser, MD offers a brief introduction to causes and diagnosis of occipital neuralgia and migraines and treated with the aid of DMX (Digital Motion X-Ray and simple dextrose Prolotherapy cervical spine injections.

Cervical spine instability and symptoms of dizziness, fainting, drop attacks, and other neurological symptoms

Cervical spine fusion surgery

Prolotherapy for hip pain

Published research papers from our doctors at Caring Medical on Shoulder Disorders

In the Journal of Prolotherapy, we sought to show how Prolotherapy could provide high levels of patient outcome satisfaction while avoiding hip surgery. Here is what we reported:

Patients were contacted an average of 19 months following their last Prolotherapy session and asked questions regarding their levels of pain, physical and psychological symptoms and activities of daily living, before and after their last Prolotherapy treatment.

Results: In these 94 hips,

The results confirm that Prolotherapy is a treatment that should be highly considered for people suffering from chronic hip pain.

Published research on Prolotherapy:

Dr. Ross Hauser and our team have published a number of research papers, case studies, and scientific editorials in the Journal of Prolotherapy, including articles on Prolotherapy as an alternative to surgery; Prolotherapy for chronic back pain; cartilage regeneration in knees; Stem cell therapy for degenerative joint disease; Prolotherapy as for meniscus tears, and many, many more.

Our Prolotherapy research papers, case studies, & scientific editorials:


1 Hauser RA. The deterioration of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis by corticosteroid injections. Journal of Prolotherapy. 2009;2:107-23. [Google Scholar]

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