Hyaluronic acid or platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of hip osteoarthritis?
Ross Hauser, MD, Caring Medical Florida
David N. Woznica, MD, Caring Medical Regenerative Medicine Clinics, Oak Park, Illinois
Danielle R. Steilen-Matias, MMS, PA-C, Caring Medical Regenerative Medicine Clinics, Oak Park, Illinois
Hyaluronic acid or platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of hip osteoarthritis?
In your quest to avoid a hip replacement surgery you may have been recommended to hyaluronic acid injections. The thinking behind this, as we will see, is that by injecting a lubricant (hyaluronic acid) into the hip, bone on bone pressure can be relieved. Surprisingly there is not a lot of research on the effectiveness of this treatment. One could speculate that the reasoning for this is that the treatment will probably help in the short-term, but it does not represent a treatment that can prevent the eventual need for a hip replacement. In essence, with hyaluronic acid injections for hip osteoarthritis, you are simply buying time and stalling the need for the surgery. Worse, the injections may offer no help and your hip condition will continue to worsen.
Buying time is appealing to those who work at physically demanding jobs, those who want to continue with sports, or those who are caregivers for others with worse medical problems than their own. Solving their hip pain problems without surgery is of course the ultimate goal. Unfortunately, hyaluronic acid injections for hip osteoarthritis has not been shown to be an effective treatment for the avoidance of surgery and provide that ultimate goal.
“But my doctor says get the gel shots”
Some people do very well with hyaluronic acid injections for their hip problems. In the short-term. We usually do not see theses short-term benefit people in our office. We see the people now beyond the short-term and the useful effectiveness of hyaluronic acid injections.
Gel shots or “viscosupplementation,” are usually not the first, second, or even third line treatment for hip osteoarthritis. They are usually given when other treatments have failed to alleviate your hip pain. These treatments include the typical conservative care of corticosteroid injections, pain medications and anti-inflammatory medications. In some instances, physical therapy and yoga are recommended for hip pain patients.
In theory, the idea of replacing or supplementing the protective and lubricating fluids of the hip sound like a good idea.
In theory, the idea of replacing or supplementing the protective and lubricating fluids of the hip sound like a good idea. So why is it not the first line of treatment for hip osteoarthritis and why do leading research centers suggest that the treatments do not work as well as hoped? Because it really does not help.
In January 2019, research lead by doctors at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago wrote these opinions in the medical journal Osteoarthritis and cartilage.(1)
- “Hip osteoarthritis is difficult to treat. Steroid injections reduce pain with short duration. With widespread adoption of office-based, image-guided injections, hyaluronic acid is a potentially relevant therapy. In the largest clinical trial to-date, we compared safety/efficacy of a single, 6-mL image-guided injection of hylan G-F 20 (Synvisc) to saline (injections) in painful hip osteoarthritis.”
- 357 patients.
- All over the age of 35.
- Patients suffered from mild to moderate hip osteoarthritis with “pain on walking.”
CONCLUSION: No better than the Placebo
- “A single 6-mL hylan G-F 20 injection or saline for painful hip osteoarthritis resulted in similar, statistically significant/clinically relevant pain and function improvements up to 6 months following injection; no differences between hylan G-F 20 and saline placebo were observed.”
These finding were also confirmed by researchers in August 2019 in the journal Medical science monitor.(2) They wrote: “Intravenous viscosupplementation does not reduce pain or improve function significantly better than placebo in a short-term follow-up. The benefits and safety of viscosupplementation should be further assessed by sufficiently-sized, methodologically sound studies with validated assessment of more clinically relevant end-points.”
A March 2020 study in the Journal of orthopaedics (3) also found that:
- Hyaluronic acid injections can achieve satisfactory pain reduction and functional improvement. However, there was not enough evidence in the current literature regarding whether hyaluronic acid injections is superior to placebo or other types of intra-articular injections.
Doctors writing in the Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation say: “We do not recommend viscosupplementation for hip osteoarthritis”
Researchers in Brazil publishing in the August 2017 edition of Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation (4) had this to say about using hyaluronic acid injections for hip osteoarthritis:
- “We do not recommend viscosupplementation for hip osteoarthritis. Compared to placebo, data shows scarce evidence of its efficacy up to 3 months, and suggests no difference at 6 months.”
- BUT, future random control studies could present hyaluronic acid injections as an alternative to methylprednisolone (steroid) for short-term symptom relief.
That recommendation is because the steroid and viscosupplementation both showed the same small benefit of pain relief over the short-term. But if you don’t recommend viscosupplementation, how can you recommend viscosupplementation over steroid? Why not recommend the placebo?
This research was cited and referenced in an August 2019 study published in the journal Medical science monitor (5) where a similar conclusion was reached:
- “Our analysis was not able to show that Intra-Articular Viscosupplementation reduces pain and improves function significantly better than placebo in a short-term follow-up. The benefits and safety of Intra-Articular Viscosupplementation should be further assessed by sufficiently-sized, methodologically-sound studies with validated assessment of more clinically relevant end-points.”
Eleven studies compare PRP to hyaluronic acid viscosupplementation
In this article, we will limit the discussion of PRP to a direct comparison to viscosupplementation.
- PRP treatment re-introduces your own concentrated blood platelets into your hip
- Your blood platelets contain growth and healing factors. When concentrated through simple centrifuging, your blood plasma becomes “rich” in healing factors, thus the name Platelet RICH plasma. Platelets play a central role in blood clotting and wound/injury healing.
Platelet Rich Plasma injections and Prolotherapy injections for Hip Soteoarthritis
In basic terms, Platelet Rich Plasma injections are the application of concentrated blood platelets, which contain and release growth factors to stimulate recovery in non-healing injuries. The video describes the technique, the research below describes the results. Prolotherapy is an injection technique utilizing simple sugar or dextrose.
We do not use PRP treatments in isolation. As we have discussed in this article, hip osteoarthritis and hip instability are problems that a single injections, for the most part, have not been shown to be effective in the long-term as attested to in the research above.
This video was created nine years ago. The basic concepts of healing remain the same. We have been treating sports related injuries with regenerative medicine injections for 26+ years.
In this video you will see the application of Platelet Rich Plasma injections and the use of Prolotherapy injections. Prolotherapy is the injection of dextrose, or a simple sugar, to irritate damaged hip ligaments. Hip ligaments provide stability, damaged hip ligaments provide INSTABILITY.
The dextrose in the Prolotherapy solution, when injected around the injury, causes a mild inflammatory response, mimicking what the body does naturally in response to soft-tissue injuries. The immune system is drawn to the area of injury and immune cells and platelets release growth factors to build new healthy tissue. The ligaments and tendons become thicker and stronger from this inflammatory response. Again, this is explained in the video above, and further below.
Will PRP work for your hip osteoarthritis?
If you have come upon this page, it is likely that you have received a recommendation to Platelet Rich Plasma Injections for your hip pain and you are doing your research. We are going to try to offer help with that research, but first, we would like to take a moment to describe how we offer Platelet Rich Plasma Injections for your hip pain as opposed to how you may have been offered this treatment in other offices.
- In Platelet Rich Plasma treatment, your blood is drawn from your arm, it is spun to concentrate the blood platelets which contain concentrated healing elements. The concentrated plasma “rich in healing platelets” solution is then injected into your hip.
- In another office, Platelet Rich Plasma treatment may have been explained to you as a one-time injection treatment.
- This “one time,” treatment explanation may offer confusion in that many patients assume PRP injections are cortisone-like in that it is one injection offered at the time of treatment. The single injection PRP causes an inflammatory response, opposite of the cortisone injections effect of causing an anti-inflammatory effect. The effects of the two injections could not be more opposite. Patients are often confused when the inflammation gets worse after PRP and they tell everyone they know that PRP does not work.
- This “one time,” treatment may also confuse patients who have or had been suggested to Hyaluronic acid. This is typically seen patients who ask about PRP injections “How long does this last?” Hyaluronic acid injections have a finite or limited beneficial effect and patients are typically told how long these types of injections will last.
There are some doctors who warn against PRP use. Doctors at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, wrote in the journal Current reviews in musculoskeletal medicine, (6) December 2018, “PRP is a costly treatment not covered by insurance, and clinical trials have not demonstrated definitive efficacy, we recommend informing patients when providing PRP ‘off-label.” Like any medical treatment, PRP will not fix everything, for some patients PRP will not work for their hip pain for various reasons, generally speaking, a condition of hip degenerative disease that is “too far gone.”
Further doctors stress that patients be evaluated for realistic candidacy of treatment. PRP should only be offered when there is a realistic expectation that the patient is considered a good candidate for treatment success. A multinational team of researchers also writing in the journal Current reviews in musculoskeletal medicine (7) June 2019 suggested: “Although PRP is safe to use and it can be easily applied in the clinics, case-specific considerations are needed to determine whether PRP could be beneficial or not. If the use of PRP is favored, then, the configuration/optimization of the preparation and administration/delivery strategy with or without a concomitant treatment may further enhance the clinical outcomes and patients’ experience.”
We invite you to read our article The evidence for Platelet Rich Plasma therapy for treating Hip Osteoarthritis for a further discussion of PRP treatments
Study: PRP showed significantly better results than hyaluronic acid groups.
A multi-national team of researchers from Israel, the United States, Italy, and Portugal published their findings in the medical journal Cartilage (8) which suggested beneficial results for PRP Platelet Rich Plasma therapy in the treatment of hip osteoarthritis. In this research 29 medical studies were evaluated. In eleven of them, a comparison was made between PRP and hyaluronic acid injections. The doctors noted that patients treated with PRP showed significantly better results than hyaluronic acid groups.
Doctors in Italy publishing in the American Journal of Sports Medicine (9) also evaluated the effectiveness of intra-articular platelet-rich plasma injections versus hyaluronic acid injections for hip osteoarthritis.
A total of 111 patients were randomly assigned to 3 different study groups and each received 3 weekly injections of either
- PRP (44 patients),
- PRP + Hyaluronic Acid (31 patients),
- or Hyaluronic Acid alone(36 patients).
- At all follow-ups, the PRP group had the lowest pain assessment scores
- Significant improvements were achieved in reducing pain and improving quality of life and functional recovery.
“My doctor says he/she wants to give me both PRP and Hyaluronic Acid”
The idea is that while PRP rebuilds hip tissue, Hyaluronic Acid will act as a lubricant to help the PRP work better. As the research shows that did not happen.
The conclusion the doctors reached was that their results indicated that intra-articular PRP injections offer a significant clinical improvement in patients with hip osteoarthritis without relevant side effects.
The benefit was significantly more stable up to 12 months as compared with the other tested treatments. The addition of PRP + Hyaluronic Acid did not lead to a significant improvement in pain symptoms.
In another study in the medical journal Orthopedics, doctors said both PRP and Hyaluronic acid both worked well for patients with hip osteoarthritis, these researchers however offered a conflicting assessment.
Intra-articular injections of platelet-rich plasma and hyaluronic acid represent effective medical treatments for osteoarthritis. This study’s goals were to compare the clinical efficacy of platelet-rich plasma and hyaluronic acid at 12-month follow-up in hip osteoarthritis patients
One hundred patients with chronic hip were consecutively enrolled and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups:
- group A received PRP and
- group B received hyaluronic acid
- both administered via intra-articular ultrasound-guided injections.
- Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months
- Despite a slightly progressive worsening between 6- and 12-month follow-up, the final clinical scores remained higher compared with baseline with no significant differences between PRP and hyaluronic acid. Regarding clinical temporal evolution, multivariate analysis showed that HHS was not influenced by the type of infiltration, patient age, sex, body mass index, or degree of OA, whereas a significant association was detected between
The conclusion these researchers reached was: Intra-articular injections of PRP are effective in terms of functional improvement and pain reduction but are not superior to hyaluronic acid in patients with symptomatic hip osteoarthritis at 12-month follow-up.(10)
While these studies show good results, we find more effective results can be achieved by treating the whole hip joint and surrounding ligaments and tendons to stabilize hip instability. Please read our article The evidence that alternatives for hip replacement may work for you
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